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Intranasal Steroid

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Intranasal Steroid, Intranasal Corticosteroid, Corticosteroid Intranasal, Nasacort, Rhinocort, Nasarel, Beconase, Vancenase, Flonase, Omnaris, Ciclesonide, Zetonna, Dymista

  • Efficacy
  1. Significantly reduces allergic symptoms
    1. Reduces nasal obstruction
    2. Reduces Rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching
    3. More effective than Antihistamines
    4. Small effect on impaired smell
  2. References
    1. Bronsky (1996) J Allergy Clin Immunol 97:915-21 [PubMed]
    2. Yanez (2002) Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 89(5): 479-84 [PubMed]
  • Safety
  1. Pregnancy Category: C (except Budesonide which is pregnancy category B)
  2. Appears safe in children as young as age 2 years
    1. No hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression
    2. Galant (2003) Pediatrics 112:96-100 [PubMed]
  • Pharmacokinetics
  1. Onset of action within hours, but maximal effect requires 2-4 weeks of continuous use
  • Adverse Effects
  1. Epistaxis
    1. Reduced by spraying away from septum
    2. Use left hand when spraying right nostril
    3. Use right hand when spraying left nostril
    4. (2004) Prescribers Letter 11(1):2 [PubMed]
  • General
  1. Aqueous Preparations: Better for dry nose, winter
    1. Moisturizing: Nasarel (Flunisolide)
    2. Moisture neutral: Nasocort AQ and Rhinocort AQ
    3. Drying agents (Alcohol): most AQ agents
  2. Non-Aqueous: Better for "wet", watery nose
  • Preparations
  • By Age Restriction
  1. All agents are pregnancy category C (except Budesonide which is pregnancy category B)
  2. Age 2 years and older
    1. Fluticasone furoate (Veramyst)
    2. Mometasone (Nosonex)
  3. Age 6 years and older
    1. Beclomethasone (Beconase)
    2. Budesonide (Rhinocort, Pregnancy category B)
    3. Ciclesonide (Omnaris)
    4. Flunisolide
  4. Age 12 years and older
    1. Fluticasone propionate (Flonase)
    2. Triamcinolone (Nasocort)
  • Preparations
  • Low potency agents (especially in children)
  1. Triamcinolone Acetonide (Nasacort)
    1. As of 2014, available as OTC ($20 per 120 spray bottle)
    2. Relative potency: 1
    3. Dose (age 6 and older)
      1. Child: 1 sprays per nostril daily
      2. Adult: 2 sprays per nostril daily (then taper to 1 spray per nostril daily as able)
  2. Mometasone (Nasonex)
    1. Dose (2 years and older): 1 spray each nostril daily (adults should use 2 sprays each nostril)
    2. Relative potency: 1
  • Preparations
  • Medium potency agents
  1. Flunisolide (Nasalide)
    1. Dose: 2 sprays per nostril twice daily
    2. Relative potency: 3
    3. Age 6 years and older
  2. Beclomethasone (Beclovent)
    1. Dose (age 6 and older): 1-2 sprays per nostril twice daily
    2. Relative potency: 5
    3. Pregnancy Category C
  • Preparations
  • Higher potency agents
  1. Budesonide (Rhinocort)
    1. As of 2016, over-ther-counter without a prescription
    2. Dose (age 6 to older): 1-2 sprays each nostril daily
    3. Adults may bolus start with 4 sprays/nostril daily for 1 week then use standard dose (1-2 sprays)
    4. Relative potency: 10
    5. Pregnancy Category B
  2. Fluticasone propionate (Flonase)
    1. As of 2015, over-ther-counter without a prescription
    2. Dose (age 12 years and older): 1-2 sprays per nostril daily
    3. Relative potency: 10
  3. Qvar 80 mg (use oral Inhaler with baby bottle nipple as nasal adapter)
    1. Dose: 1-2 sprays each nostril daily
  4. Ciclesonide (Omnaris, Zetonna)
    1. May be less irritating then other Intranasal Corticosteroids
    2. Omnaris (aqueous nasal spray)
    3. Zetonna (dry aerosol version)
  • Preparations
  • Miscellaneous
  1. Combination Agents
    1. Fluticasone with Azelastine (Dymista)
  2. Xhance (fluticasone nose and mouth device, for Nasal Polyps)
    1. Patient blows into mouth piece while activating device 93 mcg bid
    2. Theoretically penetrates more deeply into nose (hence reaching Nasal Polyps)
    3. Unproven benefit and expensive ($425/month in 2018)
    4. Similar effect likely with Nasal Saline pre-treatment and 2 standard fluticasone sprays bid
    5. (2018) Presc Lett 25(7): 41