Mouth

Oral Mucositis

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Oral Mucositis, Stomatitis

  • Definitions
  1. Stomatitis
    1. Inflammation of the mouth and lips
    2. Broader term that includes Oral Mucositis
  2. Mucositis
    1. Painful inflammation and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract
    2. Typically caused by Chemotherapy or Radiation Therapy
  • Causes
  • Stomatitis
  • Management
  1. See Oral Ulcer
  2. See Pharyngitis Symptomatic Treatment
  3. Evaluate for complications of mucositis and poor oral intake (esp. Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy related)
    1. Severe dehydration
    2. Electrolyte abnormalities (e.g. Hyponatremia, Hypokalemia)
    3. Failure to Thrive
    4. Secondary Oral Infections
      1. Antifungal rinses may be used prophylactically
    5. Bleeding lesions
      1. Keep Platelet Count >20,000
      2. Apply local pressure
      3. Topical Tranexamic Acid (TXA)
  4. Treat specific causes
    1. Angular Stomatitis
    2. Aphthous Stomatitis
    3. Herpes Gingivostomatitis
  5. Symptomatic management
    1. General measures
      1. Consider debriding with soft ToothBrush
    2. Saline rinses
      1. Prepare one teaspoon salt in 32 ounces water
      2. Some recipes recommend adding bicarbonate
    3. Topical over-the-counter agents
      1. Amphojel (coats lesions)
      2. Zilactin (forms film over the lesion)
    4. Topical prescription agents (expensive)
      1. Episil (viscous gel)
      2. Mugard (oral rinse)
      3. Gelclair (viscous gel)
    5. Consider topical combination agents
      1. Viscous Lidocaine
        1. Exercise caution in dosing and toxicity
      2. Magic Mouthwash
        1. Typically compounded (e.g. Lidocaine, Benadryl, maalox, with or without a Corticosteroid and/or antibiotic)
      3. First Mouthwash BLM (commercially prepared)
        1. Diphenhydramine, Lidocaine, Maalox, and Simethicone
    6. Avoid unhelpful or harmful agents
      1. Avoid sucralfate (ineffective)
      2. Avoid chlorhexidine (ineffective)
      3. Avoid Alcohol-based rinses (may exacerbate pain)
      4. Avoid hydrogen peroxide (may delay healing)
    7. Other agents used in Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy induced mucositis
      1. Doxepin 0.5% solution
      2. Morphine 2% mouthwash preparation
      3. Keratinocyte growth factor preparation
      4. Systemic Analgesics
  • References
  1. Negrin in Drews (2014) Oral Toxicity Associated with Chemotherapy, UpToDate, accessed online 11/05/2014
  2. Swaminathan and Dibbs in Herbert (2020) EM:Rap 20(8): 2
  3. (2014) Presc Lett 21(11): 64
  4. Nolan (1991) J Oral Pathol Med 20(8):389-91 [PubMed]
  5. Sun (2014) J Oral Pathol Med [PubMed]
  6. Thongprasom (2001) Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32(3):643-7 [PubMed]