Pigment

Oral Mucosa Hyperpigmentation

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Oral Mucosa Hyperpigmentation, Melanin Pigmentation of Oral Mucosa, Oral Hyperpigmentation, Oral Melanoplakia

  • Causes
  1. See Medication Causes of Hyperpigmentation
  2. Adrenal Insufficiency
    1. May be associated with Candidiasis in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome
  3. Darker pigmentation related to ethnicity
  4. Tobacco Abuse
  5. Medication Causes of Hyperpigmentation
  6. Neurofibromatosis 1
  7. McCune-Albright Syndrome
  8. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
  • Differential Diagnosis
  1. See Tooth Discoloration
  2. Oral Melanoma
    1. Rare, but devastating outcomes if missed when early, focal
  • Management
  1. Exclude Melanoma
  2. Eliminate or reduce dosing of causative agents
  3. Consider Tooth Discoloration causes that may be discoloring mucosa as well
  4. Refractory cases
    1. Surgical mucosal stripping of hyperpigmented tissue (e.g. laser, Cryotherapy, scalpel)