Peds

Hemangioma

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Hemangioma, Capillary Hemangioma, Strawberry Hemangioma

  • Epidemiology
  1. Prevalence: 1.1 - 2.6% of all newborns (10% of infants at one year)
  2. More common in Premature Infants
  • Signs
  1. Often lesion not present at birth or barely noticeable pale patch of skin
  2. Erythematous or violaceous lobulated lesions
  • Differential Diagnosis
  1. Thrombocytopenia
  2. Cardiac failure
  3. Cutaneous Signs of Spinal Dysraphism (e.g. sacral Hemangioma)
  • Associated Conditions
  1. Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome
  2. Tethered cord with lumbosacral lesions
    1. See Cutaneous Signs of Spinal Dysraphism
  • Course
  1. Develops in first four weeks after birth
  2. Proliferates until 9 to 12 months of age
  3. Spontaneous Resolution
    1. Age 5 years: 50% resolution
    2. Age 7 years: 70% resolution
    3. Age 9 years: 90% resolution
  4. Residual atrophy, Hypopigmentation, telangiectases, or scarring may occur
  • Management
  • Interventions by Pediatric Dermatology
  1. Compression garment or Coban Tape
    1. Hemangiomas on arms or legs
  2. Biosynthetic dresing every 24 hours
  3. Prednisone
    1. Indicated where Hemangioma compresses eye, airway or other vital conditions
    2. Dose: 3 mg/kg daily for 6-12 weeks
    3. Continue until lesion stops growing or size decreases
  4. Interferon alfa (if refractory to Steroids)
  5. Pulsed-dye laser therapy
  • Management
  • Indications for referral or further evaluation
  1. Multiple Hemangiomas
    1. Consider Ultrasound of the Abdomen to evaluate for gastrointestinal and Liver Lesions
  2. Deep Hemangiomas
  3. Large Hemangiomas
    1. Risk of high-output Heart Failure
  4. Sacral Hemangiomas
    1. See Cutaneous Signs of Spinal Dysraphism
  5. Airway Hemangioma
    1. May present with Stridor
    2. Airway Hemangiomas tend to enlarge through the first year of life