Exam

Gingiva

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Gingiva, Periodontium

  • See Also
  • Definition
  1. Gingiva (gums) abuts tooth neck
  • Preparation
  1. Patient closes teeth
  2. Retract cheeks and lips
  • Findings
  • Normal Gingiva
  1. Gingiva color is pink/pale red and stippled
  2. Sharp interdental papilla
  3. Shallow (1-2mm) crevices between gums and teeth
  4. Teeth seat firmly in bony sockets
  • Findings
  • Abnormal Gingiva
  1. Gingivitis (Plaque, calculus, food accretion)
  2. Periodontitis (Pyorrhea)
  3. Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis
  4. Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis
  5. Gingival Hyperplasia or Enlargement
  6. Epulis (Localized Gingival enlargement)
    1. Most often caused by inflammation
    2. Rule out neoplasia
  7. Gingival Erosions, bullae, atrophy, erythema
    1. Causes: autoimmune, mucocutaneous, and benign disease
    2. Biopsy if etiology not clear
  8. Lead or Bismuth Line
    1. Bluish or Black Line on gums 1mm above gum margin
    2. Seen in Chronic Lead or Bismuth Poisoning
    3. Does not appear where teeth are absent
    4. Distinguish from Melanin pigmentation
  9. Melanin Pigmentation (over tooth margin)
    1. Common brownish pigmentation normal in dark skin
    2. May also be seen in Melanism