Pharm

Norepinephrine

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Norepinephrine, Levarterenol, L-norepinephrine, Levonorepinephrine, Noradrenaline, Levophed

  • History
  1. Ulf Von Euler won 1970 Nobel Prize for its discovery
    1. Swedish Chemist also discovered Prostaglandins
  • Mechanism
  1. Naturally occurring Catecholamine
  2. Beta 1 Adrenergic Receptor Agonist
    1. Similar potency to Epinephrine
    2. Increases myocardial contractility
  3. No Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor Activity
  4. Potent Alpha Adrenergic Receptor Agonist
    1. Potent arterial and venous Vasoconstriction
  • Indications
  1. Hemodynamically significant Hypotension
    1. Refractory to other Sympathomimetic amines
    2. Useful in Low Systemic Vascular Resistance
      1. Septic Shock
      2. Neurogenic Shock
  2. Temporizing measure only
  • Relative Contraindications
  1. Acute Myocardial Infarction
    1. Use as agent of last resort
  • Monitoring
  1. Monitor Blood Pressure accurately
    1. Consider Arterial Line with continuous monitoring
    2. Blood Pressure cuff monitoring every 5 minutes
  2. Consider advanced hemodynamic monitoring
    1. Cardiac Output
    2. Pulmonary wedge pressure
    3. Peripheral arterial resistance
  • Precautions
  1. Use as temporizing measure only
  2. Use extreme caution in Myocardial Ischemia
    1. Increases myocardial oxygen requirements
    2. No compensatory increase in coronary perfusion
  3. Observe for arrhythmias
    1. Volume depleted patents
    2. Limited myocardial reserve
  4. Use Norepinephrine only via central venous catheter
    1. Extravasation causes severe local tissue damage
    2. Antidote for extravasation
      1. Phentolamine 5-10 mg diluted in 10-15 ml NS
      2. Infiltrate area of extravasation with Phentolamine
  • Preparation
  1. Start with Norepinephrine (1 mg/ml) 4 ml ampule
  2. Mix 4 ml Norepinephrine in 250 ml D5W or Normal Saline
  3. Final Concentration: 16 ug/ml Norepinephrine
  • Dosing
  • Infusion via Central Venous Catheter
  1. Weight Based (preferred, adults)
    1. Start at 0.05 mcg/kg/min
    2. Unlikely to benefit from titration above 0.3 mcg/kg/min
  2. Non-weight based
    1. Start at 5 mcg/min (some recommend starting at 0.5 to 1.0 ug/min)
    2. Typical dose range (adults): 2 to 30 mcg/min
  3. Titrate to Systolic Blood Pressure over 90 mmHg
    1. Average Adult Dose: 2 to 12 ug/min
    2. Refractory Shock: up to 30 ug/min
  • References
  1. McCollum in Herbert (2019) EM:Rap 19(7):4-6