Pericardium

Pericarditis Causes

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Pericarditis Causes

  • Causes
  • Common
  1. Idiopathic (Most common cause)
  2. Viral Infection (esp. Coxsackievirus)
  3. Myocardial Infarction
  4. Medication Causes of Pericarditis
  5. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • Causes
  • Infection
  1. Viral (common)
    1. Adenovirus
    2. Coxsackievirus (Most common viral cause)
    3. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    4. Echovirus
    5. Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)
    6. Human Herpesvirus 6
    7. Influenza
    8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus
      1. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS (occurs in 20% of AIDS Cases)
    9. Mumps Virus
    10. MeaslesVirus
    11. Viral Hepatitis
    12. Varicella Virus
  2. Bacterial (purulent Pericarditis, <5% of cases)
    1. Staphylococcus aureus (high mortality)
      1. Empyema with direct spread or hematogenous spread in children
    2. Streptococcus Pneumoniae
      1. More common prior to current Immunizations in U.S.
    3. HaemophilusInfluenzae
      1. More common prior to current Immunizations in U.S.
    4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mortality approaches 85% for untreated cases)
      1. Most common cause in developing countries
    5. Salmonella
    6. Meningococcus
    7. Syphilis
    8. Whipple Disease
    9. Rickettsia
  3. Fungal
    1. Candidiasis
    2. Histoplasmosis
    3. Blastomycosis
    4. Coccidioidomycosis
    5. Aspergillosis
  4. Other
    1. Echinococcosis
    2. Amebiasis
  • Causes
  • Cardiovascular
  1. Thoracic Aortic Dissection
  2. Post-cardiac procedures (e.g. PTCA, Cardiac Ablation, Pacemaker placement)
  3. Chest Trauma
  4. Myocardial Infarction
    1. Acute Myocardial Infarction (in first 2-4 days following event)
    2. Post-MI Syndrome (Dressler's Syndrome, occurs in weeks to months following event)
  • Causes
  • Malignancy
  1. Malignant Pericardial Effusion: 15% of cancer patients
  2. Metastatic
    1. Breast Cancer (most common)
    2. Lung Cancer (most common)
    3. Leukemia
    4. Lymphoma
    5. Malignant Melanoma
  3. Primary
    1. Sarcoma
    2. Mesothelioma
  4. Cancer treatment complications
    1. Chest radiation
    2. Chemotherapy