Exam

S4 Heart Sound

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S4 Heart Sound, S4 Gallop, S4 Gallup Rhythm, Fourth Heart Sound

  • Signs
  1. S4, S1, S2 Sound like "Ten-ne-see" (dub-lub-dub)
  • Causes
  1. Normal in athletes and the elderly
  2. Stiff Left Ventricle
    1. Hypertension
    2. Coronary Artery Disease
    3. Aortic Stenosis
    4. Cardiomyopathy
  • Resources
  1. University of Michigan Heart Sound and Murmur Library
    1. http://www.med.umich.edu/lrc/psb/heartsounds/