EKG

Atrial Fibrillation Causes

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Atrial Fibrillation Causes, Atrial Fibrillation Associated Conditions, Atrial Fibrillation Etiology, Atrial Fibrillation Risk Factors

  • Causes
  • Cardiopulmonary
  1. Chronic cardiac conditions (especially when accompanied by Left Ventricular Hypertrophy)
    1. Congestive Heart Failure
    2. Ischemic Heart Disease (Myocardial Infarction)
      1. No direct association with Atrial Fibrillation
    3. Hypertension
    4. Valvular heart disease (e.g. Rheumatic Heart Disease with Mitral Stenosis)
  2. Acute or Transient conditions
    1. Pericarditis
    2. Myocarditis
    3. Acute Pulmonary Embolism
    4. Pneumonia
    5. Sepsis or other shock state
  3. Miscellaneous conditions
    1. Obesity
      1. Risk increased 1.5 fold over non-obese patients
      2. Risk increases additionally with increased BMI
      3. Wang (2004) JAMA 292(20): 2471-7 [PubMed]
    2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    4. Cardiac Surgery
      1. Post-ablation, catheterization or device implant
      2. Cardiac Pacemaker
      3. Open thoracic surgery
    5. Sick Sinus Syndrome
    6. Atrial Myxoma (rare)
    7. Structural heart defects
      1. Cardiomyopathy
      2. Persistent Atrial Septal Defects and other Congenital Heart Disease
  4. Lone Atrial Fibrillation
    1. Patient under age 60 years
    2. No precipitating cause identified
    3. Responsible for 30-45% of paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation and 20-25% of persistent Atrial Fibrillation
  • Causes
  • Toxic, metabolic and electrolyte disorders
  1. Alcohol Abuse
    1. May be the cause of 66% of cases under age 65 years old
    2. Binge weekend drinking may result in paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (holiday heart syndrome)
  2. Sympathetic medication triggers
    1. Cocaine
    2. Amphetamine
    3. Caffeine
    4. Diet pills (e.g. Ephedra)
    5. Beta agonist Inhalers
    6. Lithium
    7. Prolonged QT Interval due to Medication
  3. Metabolic Disorders
    1. Hyperthyroidism
    2. Hypothyroidism
    3. Pheochromocytoma
  4. Miscellaneous
    1. Electrolyte abnromalities