In adults, substituted judgment is based on knowing a patient's opinions and values and the surrogate acts on what they believe the adult patient would want
However, younger children do not typically have the ability to understand their medical options and make decisions
Instead, parents and surrogates practice what they interpret as best interests of the child, although "Best interest" is often difficult to determine, and may reasonably vary from one surrogate to another
Nonmaleficence ("do no harm") may be a more manageable way to judge surrogate decision making, in which the clinician should consider whether surrogate decision making risks significant child harm
Extensive updates to the Echocardiogram content with more to come after attending a 1 week course at GCUS
Eight new diagrams covering measurements, color-doppler and pulse-wave doppler added with more to come
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This page was written by Scott Moses, MD, last revised on 2/2/2020 and last published on 2/2/2020.