II. Types: Computer to device interfaces

  1. USB
    1. USB 3.1 transfer rates of 10 GBits/s
    2. USB 3 transfer rates of 5 GBits/s (900 mA charging)
    3. USB 2 transfer rates of 480 MBits/s (500 mA charging)
    4. Adapters: Type A (standard desktop), Type B (micro, mini), Type C (new, reversible)
    5. Computer USB ports can be disabled via group management in windows (enterprise security measure)
    6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USB
  2. Old, largely defunct
    1. Firewire (IEEE 1394)
      1. Transfer rates 400-800 MBits/s (defunct, replaced by USB)
      2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_1394
    2. PS/2
      1. Old notched, round, 6-pin and 1 square peg, mouse and keyboard adapters replaced by USB
    3. Parallel Port (DB25)
      1. Old 25-pin printer interfaces replaced by USB
    4. Serial Port (DB9)
      1. Old 9-pin device adapter (still used for some Computer Maintenance - e.g. router configuration)

III. Types: Ethernet Cable (RJ-45, Twisted-Pair Copper Cable)

  1. Twisted cables cancel each wires' electromagnetic radiation (causes interference in other wires)
  2. Available in shielded (in areas of high signal interference) and unshielded
  3. TIA 568: Two standards that are not compatible with one another (although may work accidentally if not all pins used)
    1. Based on positions of each of 4 twisted pair wires (green, red, blue, black) connecting to an 8 pin adapter
    2. Each twisted pair has one striped wire and one Solid wire
    3. TIA 568A: Layout gGrBbRbB (where g=striped green and G=solid green)
    4. TIA 568B: Layout rRgBbGbB (red and green are swapped in the B standard)
  4. Cable types
    1. Straight cable is the same standard on each end (e.g. 568A to 568A) - standard ethernet cable
    2. Crossover cable (yellow) transitions from one standard to the other (e.g. 568A to 568B) - crosslinks to computers
      1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossover_cable
    3. Rollover cable (light blue, Yost) reverses opposite end (e.g. 568A to completely reversed 568A) - direct connect to router
      1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rollover_cable
  5. Cable types (all with 100 meter max distance)
    1. 1000BaseT/TX (1 Gb/s)
      1. Requires minimum of Cat 5e
    2. 10GBaseT (10 Gb/s)
      1. Requires minimum of Cat 6a (or 7, 7A)
  6. Connections
    1. Straight cable from computer or device to wall outlet
    2. Wall outlet to patch panel (in data closet) and switch
  7. Ethernet Tools
    1. See Network for software tools
    2. Wire strippers or snips
      1. Strips outer wiring
    3. RJ-45 Cable crimpers (for 8 conductor modulator plugs)
      1. Terminates ethernet cable (4 twisted pair) with a modulator plug
      2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modular_connector
    4. Punchdown Tool
      1. Used to wire the wall ethernet female receptacle (male ethernet cable plugs into this socket)
      2. Applied to each of the 8 ethernet wires to push them into their respective groove and clip excess wire
      3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punch_down_tool
    5. Tone Generator and Cable Tracer Probe
      1. Tone generator plugged into ethernet socket and emits signal when probe is applied to connected line
      2. Tests continuity between computer to wall socket to patch panel to switch
      3. Trace cable from wall through patch panel and switch
      4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signal_generator
    6. Cable Tester (e.g. Fluke Networks)
      1. Uses Tone generator and probe as well as small remote detectors that light when contact is made
      2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cable_tester
    7. Loopback Plug
      1. Plugs into ethernet port and confirms port is active
  8. Resources
    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twisted_pair
    2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet

IV. Types: Other Network Connection Interfaces

  1. See Ethernet below
  2. General concerns
    1. Label cable outlets (source, destination)
    2. Avoid signal splitters if possible due to signal degradation
    3. PVC Cable is toxic in a fire (includes releasing Carbon Monoxide)
      1. Cable run through a plenum (airflow space in ceiling or raised floor) should be plenum grade
  3. Coaxial Cable (RG-59, RG-6 with F Connectors)
    1. Four layered cable with copper core conductor surrounded by insulation and shielding
    2. Broadband cable transmits multiple signals over the same line (contrast with baseband which is one signal)
    3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coaxial_cable
  4. Fiber-optic Cable
    1. High speed, more secure, but more expensive and less flexible
    2. Modes
      1. Single mode: Transmits one single light path signal (greater distance potential from 5-10 km up to 50-70 km)
      2. Multi-mode: Transmits multiple light path signals (shorter distance potential up to 220-550 meters)
    3. Connectors
      1. Straight Tip Connector (ST Connector)
      2. SC Connector (Snap-in Connector)
      3. LC Connector
    4. Resources
      1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber_cable
  5. Other cables and connectors
    1. Phone (RJ-11 adapter)
    2. Thunderbolt
      1. Mac (proprietary): Networking between machines, devices (carries data, audio, video, daisy-chained power)
      2. Mini DisplayPort (non-Mac): Data port

V. Types: Video Multimedia Connection Interfaces

  1. High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI, mini-HDMI) - typical standard monitor interface in 2017
    1. Digital interface carries video and audio and DRM (digital rights)
    2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HDMI
  2. Digital Visual Interface (DVI)
    1. Older, digital interface which can carry audio and video (DVI-I) or only video (DVI-D)
    2. Five different types (2 DVI-I, 2 DVI-D and DVI-A), none of which are compatible with one another
    3. Video+Audio: DVI-I (Dual Link) is typical for DVI; older DVI-I (Single Link) could only support up to 1080p
    4. Video Only: DVI-D (Dual Link) is typical for DVI; older DVI-D (Single Link) could only support up to 1080p
    5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Visual_Interface
  3. Video Graphics Array (VGA, 3 rows, 15-pins total)
    1. Older, analog interface carries only video
    2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_Graphics_Array
  4. Other adapters
    1. Coaxial Cable
    2. DisplayPort
    3. Mini DisplayPort (see above regarding Thunderbolt)

VI. Types: Audio Multimedia Connection Interfaces

  1. Phone Plug (Phone Jack, Tip Ring Sleeve)
    1. Analog audio adapters
    2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phone_connector_(audio)
  2. Toshiba Link (TOSLINK)
    1. Optical audio cable (digital)
    2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOSLINK

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