II. Criteria: Tachypnea (WHO criteria)

  1. Newborn to 2 months: 60 breaths per minute
  2. Infant 2 months to 1 year: 50 breaths per minute
  3. Preschool Child 1 to 5 years: 40 breaths per minute
  4. School age Child: 20-30 breaths per minute
  5. Adults: 20 breaths per minute

III. Causes: Tachypnea

  1. See Dyspnea
  2. Physiologic and mechanical
    1. Fever
      1. Fever increases Respiratory Rate up to 10 breaths/min per degree celcius
    2. Exertion
    3. Pain
    4. Abdominal Distention
    5. Respiratory Muscle paralysis
    6. Obesity
    7. Anxiety or Panic Disorder
    8. Hypoglycemia
  3. Cardiovascular (decreased perfusion or oxygen carrying capacity)
    1. Congestive Heart Failure
    2. Anemia
    3. Hyperthyroidism
    4. Pulmonary Embolism
  4. Respiratory
    1. Pneumonia (or Pediatric Pneumonia)
    2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    3. Asthma
    4. Pneumothorax
    5. Hypoxemia or Hypercapnia
    6. Interstitial Lung Disease
    7. Pulmonary Edema
  5. Compensatory acid-base
    1. Metabolic Acidosis
    2. Sepsis (Lactic Acidosis as well as fever)
  6. Neurologic
    1. Brain mass
    2. Hepatic Encephalopathy
  7. Medications
    1. Salicylates
    2. Sympathomimetics (Amphetamines, Cocaine)
    3. Anticholinergics
    4. Cholinergics (variable effect)
    5. Hallucinogens (Ketamine, PCP)
    6. Cannabinoids (Marijuana, K2, Spice)

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Related Studies

Ontology: Tachypnea (C0231835)

Definition (MSH) Increased RESPIRATORY RATE.
Definition (MSHCZE) Zvýšená rychlost dýchání (DECHOVÁ FREKVENCE).
Definition (NCI) Abnormal increase of rate of breathing.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Rapid breathing.
Concepts Finding (T033)
MSH D059246
ICD9 786.06
ICD10 R06.82
SnomedCT 207052000, 158374006, 43186005, 102579002, 271823003
LNC LA18267-7
English RESPIRATORY RATE INCREASED, TACHYPNEA, TACHYPNOEA, [D]Tachypnea, [D]Tachypnoea, [D]Tachypnea (context-dependent category), rapid breathing (symptom), tachypnea, tachypnea (physical finding), rapid breathing, Breathing rate increased, Respiratory rate high, Respiration rate increased, Respiratory rate increased, Tachypnea NOS, rapid respirations, increased respiratory rate, tachypneic, Tachypneas, Tachypnea, Tachypnea [Disease/Finding], [D]Tachypnoea (situation), [D]Tachypnea (situation), Increased respiratory rate, RATE OF RESPIRATION, INCREASED, RESPIRATORY RATE, INCREASED, INCREASED RESPIRATORY RATE, Tachypneic, Tachypnoea, Rapid respiration, Tachypnoeic, Rapid breathing, Tachypnea (finding), respiration; rapid, tachypnoea
Italian Frequenza respiratoria aumentata, Frequenza respiratoria elevata, Tachipnea
Dutch tachypneu, ademhalingsfrequentie hoog, ademhaling; snel, ademhalingsfrequentie verhoogd, tachypnoea
French Fréquence respiratoire élevée, Rythme respiratoire augmenté, Taux respiratoire augmenté, AUGM DE LA FREQUENCE RESPIRATOIRE, TACHYPNEE, Tachypnée, Fréquence respiratoire augmentée
German Atemfrequenz hoch, ATEMFREQUENZ ERHOEHT, TACHYPNOE, Tachypnoe, Atemfrequenz erhoeht
Portuguese Frequência respiratória alta, FREQUENCIA RESPIRATORIA AUMENTADA, TAQUIPNEIA, Taquipneia, Frequência respiratória aumentada
Spanish Frecuencia respiratoria alta, [D]taquipnea (categoría dependiente del contexto), RESPIRATORIA, FRECUENCIA AUMENTAD, TAQUIPNEA, Taquipnea, respiración jadeante rápida, [D]taquipnea, respiración jadeante, respiración rápida, taquipnea (concepto no activo), [D]taquipnea (situación), taquipnea (hallazgo), taquipnea, Frecuencia respiratoria aumentada
Japanese 頻呼吸, 呼吸数増加, ヒンコキュウ, コキュウスウゾウカ, コキュウスウコウチ, 呼吸数高値
Czech Dechová frekvence zvýšená, Tachypnoe, Zvýšená dechová frekvence, Vysoká dechová frekvence, tachypnoe
Hungarian Légzésfrekvencia emelkedett, Respiratorikus frekvencia emelkedett, Tachypnoe, Respiratorikus frekvencia magas
Polish Szybkie oddychanie, Oddech przyspieszony, Szybki oddech, Tachypnoe, Przyspieszenie akcji oddechowej, Przyspieszenie oddechu, Przyspieszony oddech
Norwegian Takypné, Tachypné