II. Pathophysiology

  1. Obstruction of Bronchioles by granulation tissue
  2. Triggered by injury to Bronchiolar epithelium
    1. Response to Bronchiolar reinjury during repair phase
    2. Results in excessive granulation tissue proliferation

III. Causes

  1. Inhalation of toxic fumes
  2. Exposure to mineral dust
  3. Transplantation
    1. Bone Marrow Transplant with graft-versus-host disease
    2. Heart-Lung Transplantation
  4. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  5. Medications: Penicillamine
  6. Infection
    1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    2. Legionella
    3. Viral respiratory infections
  7. Rheumatologic Conditions
    1. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    2. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    3. Dermatomyositis
    4. Polymyositis

IV. Symptoms

  1. Non-productive cough with Dyspnea
  2. Onset 2-8 weeks after respiratory injury (see causes)

V. Signs

VI. Imaging: Chest XRay

  1. Variable pattern (may be normal)
  2. Diffuse nodular pattern
  3. Distal hyperinflation

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Related Studies

Ontology: Bronchiolitis Obliterans (C0006272)

Definition (MSH) Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.
Definition (NCI) Inflammation of the bronchioles with obstruction by fibrous granulation tissue or bronchial exudate. It may follow inhalation of irritating gases or foreign bodies and it complicates pneumonia.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A condition in which the bronchioles (tiny branches of air tubes in the lungs) become inflamed and blocked. It may be caused by breathing in gases or particles that irritate the bronchioles. This irritation causes scar tissue to form, and makes breathing difficult. Bronchiolitis olbiterans may be caused by other factors, and can also occur after a transplant with an organ or stem cells from a matched donor.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D001989
SnomedCT 40100001
English OB - Obliterativ bronchiolitis, BO, Bronchiolitis Obliterans, obliterative bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, bronchiolitis obliterans (diagnosis), obliterative bronchiolitis (diagnosis), Bronchiolitis Obliterans [Disease/Finding], bronchiolitis obliterative, Bronchiolitis obliterans, OB - Obliterative bronchiolitis, Obliterative bronchiolitis, Obliterative bronchiolitis (disorder), bronchiolitis; obliterative, obliterative; bronchiolitis, Obliterative bronchiolitis, NOS
Italian Bronchiolote obliterativa, Bronchiolite essudativa, Bronchiolite obliterante
Swedish Obliterativ bronkiolit
Japanese ヘイソクセイサイキカンシエン, 細気管支炎-滲出性, 細気管支炎-閉塞性, 増殖性細気管支炎, 滲出性細気管支炎, 閉塞性細気管支炎, 閉鎖性気管支炎, 細気管支炎-増殖性
Finnish Tukkeava bronkioliitti
Czech Bronchiolitida obliterující, Obliterující bronchiolitida, obliterující bronchiolitida, bronchiolitida obliterující
Polish Zespół zarostowego zapalenia oskrzelików, Zapalenie oskrzelików zarostowe, Zarostowe zapalenie oskrzelików
Hungarian Bronchiolitis obliterans, Obliterativ bronchiolitis
Norwegian Obliterativ bronkiolitt, Bronchiolitis obliterans
Dutch bronchiolitis; obliteratief, obliteratief; bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, Bronchiolitis obliterans, Bronchiolitis, exsudatieve, Bronchiolitis, proliferatieve
Spanish bronquiolitis obliterante (trastorno), bronquiolitis obliterante, Bronquiolitis obliterante, Bronquiolitis Obliterante
Portuguese Bronquiolite obliterante, Bronquiolite Obliterante
German obliterative Bronchiolitis, Bronchiolitis obliterans, Bronchiolitis, exsudative, Bronchiolitis, obliterierende, Bronchiolitis, proliferative
French Bronchiolite oblitérante