Cardiovascular Medicine Book


HDL Cholesterol

Aka: HDL Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein, Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase, LCAT
  1. See Also
    1. Hyperlipidemia
    2. Lipoprotein
  2. Physiology
    1. See Lipoprotein
    2. HDL is synthesized in the liver as empty, non-lipid bound Proteins (apolipoprotein A1), starting as the smallest and most dense Lipoproteins
    3. HDL is a Cholesterol scavenger returns excess Cholesterol and LDL remnants back to the liver, for bile synthesis
    4. HDL also transports apolipoproteins C2 and E to and from Triglyceride rich Lipoproteins
    5. Lecithin-Cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) enzyme is bound to HDL
      1. LCAT converts free Cholesterol into the more hydrophobic Cholesterol esters that are then sequestered into Lipoproteins
  3. Interpretation
    1. Positive Cardiac Risk Factor (Atherogenic)
      1. HDL < 35
      2. Total Cholesterol to HDL ratio
        1. Men > 5.0
        2. Women > 4.5
    2. Negative Cardiac Risk Factor (Protective)
      1. HDL > 60
  4. Increased
    1. Medications
      1. Gemfibrozil
      2. Niacin
      3. Exogenous Estrogens
    2. Moderate Alcohol intake (1 ounce per day)
    3. Regular aerobic Exercise
      1. Graded increase with miles run per week
      2. Kokkinos (1995) Arch Intern Med 155(4):415-20 [PubMed]
    4. Weight loss (for obese patients)
      1. HDL increases 2 mg/dl for each 4.5 kg of weight loss
  5. Decreased
    1. Tobacco Abuse
    2. Diabetes Mellitus
    3. Hypertriglyceridemia
    4. Menopause
    5. Obesity
    6. Puberty in males
    7. Uremia
    8. Anabolic Steroids
    9. Apolipoprotein deficiency
    10. Liver disease
    11. Tangier disease
    12. Medications
      1. Progestins
      2. Probucol
  6. References
    1. Ginsberg (2000) Am J Cardiol 86(suppl):41L-45L [PubMed]

Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase (C0023194)

Definition (MSH) An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Enzyme (T126)
MSH D007862
SnomedCT 88557001
LNC LP15695-7, MTHU012335
English Acyltransferase, Lecithin, Acyltransferase, Lecithin Cholesterol, Acyltransferase, Phosophatidylcholine-Sterol, Cholesterol Acyltransferase, Lecithin, Cholesterol Ester Lysolecithin Acyltransferase, Lecithin Acyltransferase, Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase, Phosophatidylcholine Sterol Acyltransferase, Phosophatidylcholine-Sterol Acyltransferase, Phosphatidylcholine:sterol O-acyltransferase, LCAT, LCAT-Lecithin chol acyltransf, Lecithin chol acyltransf, O-Acyltransferase, Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol, Phosphatidylcholine Sterol O Acyltransferase, Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase, phosphatidylcholine sterol acyltransferase, PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE STEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE O, phospholipid cholesterol acyltransferase, Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase [Chemical/Ingredient], lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, Phosphatidylcholine-sterol acyltransferase, Phospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase, LCAT - Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, Phosphatidylcholine-sterol acyltransferase (substance)
Swedish Fosfatidylkolin-sterol O-acyltransferas
Czech fosfatidylcholinsterol-O-acyltransferasa, lecitinacyltransferasa
Finnish Fosfatidyylikoliinisteroli-O-asyylitransferaasi
Italian Lecitina aciltransferasi, Fosfatidilcolina-sterolo aciltransferasi, Estere del colesterolo lisolecitina aciltransferasi, Lecitina colesterolo aciltransferasi, Fosfatidilcolina-sterolo o-aciltransferasi
German PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLIN STEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE O, Lecithin-Acyltransferase, Lecithin-Cholesterol-Acyltransferase, Phosphatidylcholin-Sterol-O-Acyltransferase
French LCAT, Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase, Lécithine-cholestérol acyltransférase, Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase, Phospholipide-cholesterol acyltransferase
Polish Acylotransferaza lecytynowa, O-acylotransferaza fosfatydylocholino-sterolowa, LCAT
Japanese ホスファチジルコリン-ステロールO-アシルトランスフェラーゼ, ホスファチジルコリン-ステロールアシルトランスフェラーゼ, レシチンアシルトランスフェラーゼ, レシチンコレステロールアシルトランスフェラーゼ, リン脂質-コレステロールアシルトランスフェラーゼ, レシチン-コレステロールアシルトランスフェラーゼ, レシチン:コレステロールアシルトランスフェラーゼ
Spanish fosfatidilcolina - esterol aciltransferasa (sustancia), fosfatidilcolina - esterol aciltransferasa, fosfolípido - colesterol aciltransferasa, lecitina - colesterol aciltransferasa, Fosfatidilcolina-Esterol O-Aciltransferasa, Lecitina Aciltransferasa, Lecitina Colesterol Aciltransferasa
Portuguese Fosfatidilcolina-Esterol O-Aciltransferase, Lecitina Aciltransferase, Lecitina Colesterol Aciltransferase
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

High Density Lipoproteins (C0023821)

Definition (NCI) The smallest and densest lipoproteins, containing a high proportion of protein. They are synthesized in the liver as empty proteins and they pick up cholesterol and increase in size as they circulate through the bloodstream. Because HDL can remove cholesterol from the arteries, and transport it back to the liver for excretion, they are seen as "good" lipoproteins.
Definition (CSP) class of lipoproteins that promote transport of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissue to the liver for excretion in the bile; synthesized by the liver as particles lacking a lipid core, they accumulate a core of cholesterol esters during reverse cholesterol transport and transfer them to the liver directly or indirectly via other lipoprotein; HDL also shuttle apolipoproteins C-II and E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during catabolism of the lipoproteins; serum HDL cholesterol has been negatively correlated with premature coronary heart disease.
Definition (MSH) A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Lipid (T119) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D008075
SnomedCT 9422000
LNC LP15708-8, LP99392-0, LP70405-3, MTHU005010
English High density lipoprotein (HDL), alpha Lipoproteins, HDL Lipoproteins, Heavy Lipoproteins, High Density Lipoproteins, Lipoproteins, HDL, Lipoproteins, Heavy, High-Density Lipoproteins, alpha-Lipoproteins, Lipoproteins, High-Density, high density lipoprotein, High densitiy lipoprotein, Lipoproteins, HDL [Chemical/Ingredient], hdls, high density lipoproteins, alpha-lipoprotein, high density lipoproteins (HDL), Lipoprotein.alpha, High density lipoproteins, alpha Lipoprotein, HDL, High density lipoprotein, HDL - High density lipoprotein, Alpha-lipoprotein, High density lipoprotein (substance), High Density Lipoprotein
French alpha-Lipoprotéines, HDL (High-Density Lipoproteins), alpha-Lipoprotéine, Lipoprotéines HDL, Lipoprotéines de haute densité
Swedish Lipoproteiner, HDL
Czech lipoproteiny HDL
Finnish HDL-lipoproteiinit
Italian Lipoproteine pesanti, Alfa-lipoproteine, Lipoproteine ad alta densità, Lipoproteine HDL
Spanish alfa-Lipoproteínas, lipoproteína alfa, lipoproteína de alta densidad (sustancia), lipoproteína de alta densidad, Lipoproteínas de Alta Densidad, Lipoproteínas HDL
Polish Lipoproteidy o wysokiej gęstości, HDL, Lipoproteiny HDL
Japanese HDLリポ蛋白質, 高密度リポ蛋白質, α-リポタンパク質, アルファリポ蛋白質, 高密度リポタンパク質, 高比重リポ蛋白質, リポ蛋白質-HDL, 高密度リポ蛋白
German Alpha-Lipoproteine, High-Density-Lipoproteine, Lipoproteine, HDL-
Portuguese alfa-Lipoproteínas, Lipoproteínas de Alta Densidade, Lipoproteínas HDL
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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