Urology Book



Aka: Dysuria, Urethritis
  1. See Also
    1. Urinary Tract Infection
    2. Urinary Tract Infection in Children
    3. Dysuria in Women
    4. Periuretheral Contact Dermatitis in Women
    5. Dysuria in Men
    6. Dysuria in Children
  2. Definitions
    1. Dysuria
      1. Burning or stinging of the Urethra with voiding
    2. Urethritis
      1. Urethral inflammation with Dysuria, Pruritus or burning or visible discharge from meatus
  3. Causes: By Cohort
    1. See Dysuria in Women
    2. See Dysuria in Men
    3. See Dysuria in Children
  4. Causes: Infectious
    1. Urinary Tract Infection
      1. Cystitis
      2. Pyelonephritis
      3. Urethritis
    2. Sexually Transmitted Infections
      1. White discharge
        1. NeisseriaGonorrhea
      2. Watery or no discharge
        1. Chlamydia trachomatis (15-40% of cases)
        2. Gut Flora (following anal intercourse)
        3. Genital Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV II)
        4. Mycoplasma Genitalium (15-20% of Non-Gonococcal Urethritis causes in women)
        5. Ureaplasma urealyticum
        6. Trichomonas vaginalis
    3. Other genitourinary infections
      1. Women
        1. See Dysuria in Women
        2. Vulvovaginitis (e.g. Bacterial Vaginosis, Yeast Vaginitis)
        3. Cervicitis
      2. Men
        1. See Dysuria in Men
        2. Prostatitis
        3. Epididymitis or Orchitis
  5. Causes: Dermatologic
    1. Contact Dermatitis or chemical irritation
      1. See Periuretheral Contact Dermatitis in Women
      2. Spermacidal gel
      3. Topical deodorants
    2. Lichen Sclerosus
    3. Lichen Planus
    4. Psoriasis
    5. Behcet Syndrome
  6. Causes: Medication and food causes of Dysuria
    1. Medications
      1. Dopamine
      2. Cantharidin
      3. Ticarcillin
      4. Penicillin G
      5. Cyclophosphamide
      6. Opioids
      7. Ketamine
      8. Nifedipine
    2. Food and herbal supplement adverse effects
      1. Saw Palmetto
      2. Pumpkin seeds
  7. Causes: Miscellaneous
    1. Urethral
      1. Urethral Stricture
      2. Urethral Diverticulum
      3. Reiter's Syndrome
      4. Local Urethral Trauma (e.g. Bicycling, horse back riding)
    2. Bladder
      1. Bladder Cancer
    3. Kidney
      1. Renal Cancer
      2. Nephrolithiasis
    4. Abdomen and Pelvis
      1. Lymphoma
      2. Pelvic Irradiation
      3. Genitourinary foreign body (e.g. stent)
  8. Causes: Miscellaneous - Men
    1. See Dysuria in Men
    2. Phimosis
    3. Prostate
      1. Prostatitis
      2. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
      3. Prostate Cancer
  9. Causes: Miscellaneous - Women
    1. See Dysuria in Women
    2. Vulva and Vagina
      1. Atrophic Vaginitis
      2. Vaginal cancer
      3. Vulvar Cancer
    3. Uterus
      1. Endometriosis
      2. Uterine Fibroids (paraurethral)
  10. Causes: Psychogenic and social
    1. Somatization
    2. Chronic Pain Syndrome (e.g. Chronic Pelvic Pain)
    3. Major Depression
    4. Chemical Dependency
    5. Sexual abuse
  11. History: Characteristics of Dysuria
    1. Timing
      1. Start of void: Urethral source
      2. End of void: Bladder source
    2. Pain location
      1. Cystitis
        1. Bladder and Urethral pain
      2. Bladder Distention
        1. Suprapubic or retropubic pressure
      3. Vaginitis
        1. External pain distribution
      4. Prostatitis (or other deeper pelvic source)
        1. Deep perineal pain
      5. Epididymitis
        1. Testicular Pain
  12. History: Associated symptoms and contributing factors
    1. Bladder and lower urinary tract symptoms
      1. Urinary Frequency or urinary urgency
      2. Hematuria
      3. Abnormal Urine Odor
      4. Urinary Incontinence
      5. Nocturia
    2. Kidney and upper urinary tract symptoms
      1. Flank Pain
      2. Fever
      3. Nausea or Vomiting
    3. Past medical history
      1. Pyelonephritis
      2. Nephrolithiasis
      3. Sexually Transmitted Infection
      4. Genitourinary procedures
      5. Genitourinary malignancy
    4. Medications and topical agents
      1. Exposures to possible urinary tract irritants or external Contact Dermatitis causes
    5. Additional history in women
      1. Pregnancy, current Contraception and Last Menstrual Period
      2. Vaginal Discharge or vaginal irritation
    6. Additional history in men
      1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
      2. Testicular Pain
  13. Exam
    1. Abdominal exam
      1. Abdominal tenderness (e.g. suprapubic tenderness)
      2. Flank tenderness (Costovertebral Angle Tenderness)
      3. Suprapubic fullness (Bladder Distention)
    2. Female genitourinary exam
      1. Vulvar lesions (e.g. vessicles or ulcerations)
      2. Inguinal Lymphadenopathy
      3. Vaginal Discharge
      4. Vaginal Atrophy
      5. Cervical discharge
      6. Cervical motion tenderness
    3. Male genitourinary exam
      1. Penile discharge
      2. Penile Lesions, esp. at meatus (e.g. Vesicles, ulcers)
      3. Inguinal Lymphadenopathy
      4. Epididymal or testicular tenderness
      5. Swollen, tender Prostate
    4. Skin exam
      1. Localized genitourinary dermatitis (e.g. HSV, Contact Dermatitis, chronic inflammatory condition)
    5. Polyarthritis
      1. Gonococcus (associated with scattered Pustules)
      2. Reiter's Syndrome (associated with Conjunctivitis)
  14. Labs
    1. Urinalysis
    2. Urine Culture
    3. STD Testing for Urethritis
      1. Gonorrhea PCR
      2. Chlamydia PCR testing
      3. Wet Prep
      4. Trichomonas PCR (NAAT)
      5. Mycoplasma Genitalium (CDC approved testing available as of 2019)
        1. Consider in persistent or recurrent Urethritis
      6. Also offer HIV Test, Hepatitis B and Syphilis Test
  15. Imaging
    1. Bladder and renal Ultrasound (or Bedside Ultrasound)
      1. Bladder Distention (may also be detected with Bladder scan or post-void residual catheterization)
      2. Hydronephrosis
    2. CT Abdomen and Pelvis without contrast
      1. Nephrolithiasis
    3. CT Abdomen and Pelvis with and without contrast (CT Urogram)
      1. Hematuria evaluation for malignancy
    4. Cystoscopy
      1. Hematuria evaluation for malignancy
      2. Interstitial Cystitis
  16. Management: General
    1. Symptomatic Management
      1. Phenazopyridine (Pyridium)
    2. Antibiotic indications
      1. Urinary Tract Infection or Pyelonephritis
      2. Sexually Transmitted Infection or Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (see Urethritis below)
      3. Suspected Acute Prostatitis
        1. May be associated with Pelvic Pain, worse on Defecation and with ejaculation
  17. Management: Urethritis
    1. Treat as Sexually Transmitted Infection
    2. Despite risk of overtreatment, treat for suspected Chlamydia and Gonorrhea (prevents spread, complications)
      1. Gonorrhea management
        1. Ceftriaxone 500 mg IM/IV for 1 dose (1 gram IM/IV if weight > 150 kg, dose increased in 2020) OR
        2. Gentamicin 240 mg IM and Azithromycin 2 g orally for one dose OR
        3. Cefixime 800 mg orally once is an alternative but NOT recommended due to Antibiotic Resistance
      2. Chlamydia management
        1. Doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 7 days (preferred as of 2020) OR
        2. Azithromycin 1 g orally for 1 dose
      3. References
        1. Cyr (2020) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 69(50): 1911-6

          1. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6950a6.htm
    3. Other management
      1. Consider Genital Herpes
      2. Treat Trichomonas vaginalis if present
        1. Metronidazole 2 grams orally or 500 mg orally twice daily for 7 days OR
        2. Tinidazole 2 grams orally
    4. As noted above, offer other STD testing (e.g. HIV Test, Syphilis Test)
    5. Treat sexual partners
      1. See Expedited Partner Treatment
  18. Management: Persistent Dysuria with unremarkable evaluation
    1. Urge Incontinence or Overactive Bladder
      1. Pelvic Floor Exercises and Bladder TrainingExercises
    2. Topical or systemic irritants
      1. Discontinue offending agents
  19. ' Consider regional pain sources
      1. Endometriosis
      2. Interstitial Cystitis
    1. Consider empiric treatment for Mycoplasma Genitalium if testing is unavailable
      1. Moxifloxacin 400 mg orally daily for 7-14 days OR
      2. Azithromycin 1 gram orally OR
      3. Doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days
  20. References
    1. Bremnor (2002) Am Fam Physician 65(8):1589-97 [PubMed]
    2. Michels (2015) Am Fam Physician 92(9): 778-86 [PubMed]
    3. Sell (2021) Am Fam Physician 103(9): 553-8 [PubMed]

Dysuria (C0013428)

Definition (MSHCZE) Obtížné a bolestivé MOČENÍ, provázené pálením a řezáním. Příznak zánětu močových cest, popř. pohlavních orgánů. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2012 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI_FDA) Difficulty or pain in urination.
Definition (NCI) Difficulty or pain in urination.
Definition (MSH) Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.
Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
MSH D053159
ICD9 788.1
ICD10 R30.0, R30, R30.9
SnomedCT 207159007, 207162005, 207160002, 158461004, 207604009, 139423000, 158463001, 158460003, 49650001
English MICTURITION PAINFUL, Dysuria NOS, Painful urination, [D]Dysuria, [D]Dysuria NOS, [D]Painful urination, Painful micturit,unspecif, Painful micturition, unspecified, [D]Dysuria (context-dependent category), [D]Dysuria NOS (context-dependent category), [D]Painful urination (context-dependent category), Dysuria, [X]Painful micturit,unspecif, [X]Painful micturition, unspecified, Pain with urination, painful urination, dysuria, pain during urination (symptom), pain during urination, pain during urination (dysuria), Micturition painful, Urination pain, Painful urination NOS, Pain associated with micturition, Dysuria [Disease/Finding], urination pain, Pain;urination, painful micturition, [D]Painful urination (situation), [D]Dysuria (situation), [X]Painful micturition, unspecified (finding), [D]Dysuria NOS (situation), DYSURIA, Pain emptying bladder, Pain on micturition, Pain on voiding, Pain passing urine, Pain passing water, Painful micturition, Passing water hurts, Urination painful, Dysuria (finding), Dysuria/painful urination, micturition; painful, micturition; pain, pain; micturition, painful; micturition, painful; urination, urination; painful, Dysuria, NOS, pain with urination, [X]Painful micturition, unspecified (context-dependent category)
Dutch pijnlijke urinatie, urinatiepijn, pijnlijke mictie, Pijnlijke mictie, mictie; pijnlijk, mictie; pijn, pijn; mictie, pijnlijk; mictie, pijnlijk; urineren, urineren; pijnlijk, Dysurie, Pijnlijke mictie, niet gespecificeerd, dysurie, Pijn verband houdend met mictie
French Douleur à l'urination, Micturition douloureuse, Urination douloureuse, Dysurie, DYSURIE, MICTION DOULOUREUSE
German Schmerzen bei Harnausscheidung, Miktion schmerzhaft, schmerzhafte Harnausscheidung, Dysurie, DYSURIE, MIKTION SCHMERZHAFT, Schmerzen beim Wasserlassen, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Schmerzen beim Wasserlassen
Italian Minzione dolorosa, Dolore alla minzione, Disuria
Portuguese Micção dolorosa, Dor à micção, Disuria, DISURIA, MICCAO DOLOROSA, Disúria
Spanish Micción dolorosa, Disuria, [D]disuria (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]disuria, SAI (categoría dependiente del contexto), [X]micción dolorosa, no especificada (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]micción dolorosa (categoría dependiente del contexto), DISURIA, MICCION DOLOROSA, [D]disuria (situación), [X]micción dolorosa, no especificada, [D]disuria, SAI, [D]disuria, [D]micción dolorosa (situación), [D]micción dolorosa, [X]micción dolorosa, no especificada (hallazgo), [D]disuria, SAI (situación), disuria (hallazgo), disuria, micción dolorosa
Japanese 排尿困難, 排尿痛, ハイニョウコンナン, ハイニョウツウ
Swedish Dysuri
Finnish Dysuria
Czech dysurie, Bolestivé močení, Dysurie
Korean 배뇨와 연관된 통증, 배뇨곤란, 상세불명의 배뇨통(증)
Polish Oddawanie moczu bolesne, Dysuria, Bolesne oddawanie moczu
Hungarian dysuria, Vizeletürítési fájdalom, Fájdalmas vizeletürítés, Fájdalmas vizelés
Norwegian Dysuri, Vannlatingsplager
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Urethritis (C0041976)

Definition (CSP) inflammation of the urethra.
Definition (MSH) Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D014526
ICD9 597.80
ICD10 N34.2
SnomedCT 197905005, 31822004
English Urethritides, Urethritis, URETHRITIS, Urethritis unspecified, Urethritis, unspecified, urethritis (diagnosis), urethritis, Urethritis NOS, Urethritis [Disease/Finding], inflammation of urethra, Urethral inflammation, Urethritis unspecified (disorder), Inflammation of urethra, Urethritis (disorder), Urethritis, NOS
Dutch urethritis, niet-gespecificeerd, urethra-ontsteking, urethritis, Urethritis
French Urétrite, non précisée, Inflammation uréthrale, Urétrite, Uréthrite
German Urethritis, unspezifisch, Entzuendung der Harnroehre, Urethritis, Harnröhrenentzündung
Italian Uretrite non specificata, Infiammazione uretrale, Uretrite
Portuguese Uretrite NE, Inflamação uretral, Uretrite
Spanish Uretritis no especificada, Inflamación de uretra, uretritis no especificada (trastorno), uretritis no especificada, inflamación de la uretra, uretritis (trastorno), uretritis, Uretritis
Japanese 尿道炎, 尿道炎、詳細不明, ニョウドウエン, ニョウドウエンショウサイフメイ, 尿道の炎症, ニョウドウノエンショウ
Swedish Urinrörsinflammation
Czech močová trubice - zánět, uretritida, Uretritida, Blíže neurčená uretritida, Zánět uretry, zánět močové trubice
Finnish Virtsaputkitulehdus
Polish Zapalenie cewki moczowej
Hungarian urethritis, Urethritis, nem meghatározott, Urethralis gyulladás
Croatian Uretritis
Norwegian Urethritt, Betennelse i urinrøret
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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