Urology Book


Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

Aka: Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis, Urate Stones, Hyperuricosuria, Uric Acid Calculi
  1. See Also
    1. Nephrolithiasis
    2. Gouty Arthritis
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Represents 10% of Kidney Stones
    2. Occurs in 10-25% of gout patients
      1. Even higher risk with increasing Uric Acid levels (e.g. 50% Prevalence in those with Uric Acid >13 mg/dl)
  3. Evaluation
    1. See Nephrolithiasis
  4. Types
    1. Pure Uric Acid Calculi
    2. Mixed Calcium and Uric Acid Calculi
  5. Causes
    1. Primary cause
      1. Acidic urine (pH <5.5)
    2. Other causes
      1. Gouty Arthritis (confers 2 fold risk of calculi)
      2. Excessive dietary Purine intake (meats)
      3. End Ileostomy
      4. Insulin Resistance
        1. Results in impaired ammonia and citrate excretion
        2. Results in lower pH and increased urinary ammonia
        3. Increased Uric Acid crystallization
  6. Labs
    1. AM spot urine for Urine pH and Crystaluria
      1. Uric Acid stones form in acidic urine
  7. Imaging
    1. See Nephrolithiasis Imaging
    2. Limited Ultrasound for Acute Renal Colic
    3. Non-contrast Abdominal CT
    4. XRay Abdomen
      1. Pure Uric Acid Calculi are radiolucent
      2. May be visualized if mixed Calcium and Uric Acid
  8. Management: Prevention of Uric Acid stone recurrence
    1. General
      1. Restrict dietary intake of Sodium and Protein
      2. Maintain Urine Output: over 2.5 liters per day
    2. Alkalinize urine (especially if Urine pH is low, acidic)
      1. Maintain Urine pH >5.5 (6.5 - 7.0 preferred)
      2. Potassium Citrate 10-20 mEq orally three times daily with meals (preferred) OR
      3. Calcium Citrate 500 mg, two tablets daily with meals OR
      4. Sodium Bicarbonate 650 mg tablets (7.74 meq each) two tablets orally three times daily
    3. Hyperuricosuria (>800 mg/day)
      1. Potassium citrate as above
      2. Allopurinol 100-300 mg/day
      3. Purine (Protein) restriction
      4. Reduce Urine Uric Acid excretion
  9. References
    1. Mobley (Feb 1999) Hospital Medicine, p. 21-38
    2. Goldfarb (1999) Am Fam Physician 60(8): 2269-76 [PubMed]
    3. Houshiar (1996) Postgrad Med 100(4): 131-8 [PubMed]
    4. Frassetto (2011) Am Fam Physician 84(11): 1234-42 [PubMed]
    5. Pietrow (2006) Am fam Physician 74(1): 86-94 [PubMed]
    6. Preminger (2007) J Urol 178(6): 2418-34 [PubMed]
    7. Portis (2001) Am Fam Physician 63(7):1329-38 [PubMed]
    8. Segura (1997) J Urol 158:1915-21 [PubMed]
    9. Shekarriz (2002) J Urol 168:1307-14 [PubMed]
    10. Teichman (2004) N Engl J Med 350:684-93 [PubMed]
    11. Trivedi (1996) Postgrad Med, 100(6): 63-78 [PubMed]

Uric acid concentration in urine above normal (C0948643)

Concepts Finding (T033)
SnomedCT 282761000009106, 283001000009101
Italian Iperuricosuria
Japanese 高尿酸尿症, コウニョウサンニョウショウ
Czech Hyperurikosurie
Hungarian hyperuricosuria
English Uric acid level in urine elevated, Elevated urine uric acid, Uric acid concentration in urine above normal, Hyperuricosuria, Uric acid concentration in urine above normal (finding)
Portuguese Hiperuricosúria
Spanish Hiperuricuria
Dutch hyperuricosurie
French Hyperuricosurie
German Hyperuricosuria
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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