Urology Book


Erectile Dysfunction

Aka: Erectile Dysfunction, Impotence
  1. Definitions
    1. Erectile Dysfunction
      1. Inability to achieve or maintain Erection
      2. Erection not satisfactory for sexual intercourse
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Incidence in United States
      1. Ages 20 to 39 years: 7.5%
      2. Ages 40 to 49 years: 11%
      3. Ages 50 to 59 years: 18%
      4. Ages 60 to 69 years: 38%
      5. Age over 70 years: 57%
    2. Prevalence in United States: 10-20 Million
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. See Penile Anatomy and Erection physiology
    2. Organic disease responsible for 80% of cases
    3. Arterial or venous disease accounts for 70% of cases
  4. Causes
    1. See Erectile Dysfunction Causes
  5. History
    1. Assess Severity of symptoms
      1. See International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire (IIEF-5)
    2. Characteristics of Erectile Dysfunction
      1. Frequency and duration of Impotence
      2. Partial or complete lack of rigidity (and absent of morning Erection)
        1. Vascular causes (e.g. Peripheral Vascular Disease)
        2. Medication causes of Erectile Dysfunction
        3. Pelvic surgery
      3. Libido difficulties
        1. Hypogonadism
        2. Hpothyroidism
        3. Maor depression
      4. No orgasm (anorgasmia) or decreased quality of orgasm
        1. Alcohol Abuse
        2. Thyroid disease
        3. Medication causes of Erectile Dysfunction
        4. Major Depression
        5. Pelvic surgery or irradiation
      5. Decreased ejaculate volume
        1. Normal aging
        2. Chronic Prostatitis
        3. Ejaculatory duct obstruction
        4. Retrograde ejaculation
      6. Painful sexual intercourse
        1. Sexual abuse
        2. Genital Piercings
        3. Sexually Transmitted Disease (e.g. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection)
    3. Symptoms suggestive of Psychogenic Impotence
      1. Depressions Screening in all cases (e.g. PHQ-9)
      2. Sudden onset of Impotence
      3. Impotence in age under 40 years
      4. Strained relationship with sexual partner
      5. Morning or nocturnal Erections still present
      6. Erections achieved with masturbation or oral sex
    4. Review potential Impotence Causes
    5. Consider comorbid conditions
      1. Coronary Artery Disease is common in Impotence
        1. Solomon (2003) Am J Cardiol 91:230-1 [PubMed]
  6. Exam
    1. Blood Pressure
      1. Cardiovascular disease
      2. Peripheral Vascular Disease
    2. Heart Rate
      1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
      2. Hyperthyroidism
      3. Stimulant Disease
      4. Cardiovascular Disease
    3. Body Mass Index (BMI)
      1. Diabetes Mellitus or Metabolic Syndrome
      2. Cushing Syndrome
    4. Auscultate Great Vessels for Arterial Bruits
      1. Peripheral Vascular Disease
    5. Penile curvature
      1. Peyronie Disease
      2. Ruptured corpora cavernosum
      3. Venous leakage
    6. Endocrine exam
      1. Thyroid Exam
      2. Hypogonadism Signs
        1. Testicular atrophy
        2. Gynecomastia
    7. Neurologic function (rectal tone, Bulbocavernosus Reflex, perineal Sensation)
      1. Lumbar central spinal stenosis
      2. Pelvic surgery
      3. Pelvic Trauma
    8. Prostate enlargement
      1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  7. Evaluation: Scales
    1. Depression Screening (e.g. PHQ-9)
    2. International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire (IIEF-5)
  8. Labs: Initial
    1. Fasting Serum Glucose (or Hemoglobin A1C)
    2. Fasting Lipid profile
    3. Morning Total Testosterone Level
      1. Indications: Hyogonadism signs (controversial)
        1. Small Testes
        2. Lack of male secondary sex characteristics
        3. Very low libido
        4. Inadequate PDE-5 Inhibitor (e.g. Viagra) response
        5. Indicated in most cases (especially men over age 50 years, and in signs of Hypogonadism)
      2. Interpretation
        1. Total Testosterone <300 ng/ml suggests Hypogonadism
        2. Confirm abnormal Serum Testosterone with repeat test in 2-3 months
          1. Consider free Testosterone Level if repeatedly normal, however levels are not standardized
        3. Consider Testosterone Supplementation for persistently low Testosterone
    4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
      1. Especially indicated in all older men
  9. Labs: Endocrine as indicated
    1. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Indications
      1. Hypogonadism evaluation for low Testosterone
    3. Prolactin Level Indications
      1. Suspected Prolactinoma
      2. Serum Free Testosterone decreased
      3. Libido decreased significantly
  10. Labs: Other tests if indicated
    1. Serum Chemistry Panel (Chem7)
    2. Urinalysis
    3. Complete Blood Count
    4. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
  11. Evaluation: Assessment of nighttime Erection
    1. Indication: Psychogenic cause suspected
    2. Rarely performed now
    3. Techniques
      1. Snap-gauge cuff
      2. Rigiscan (Nocturnal penile tumescence monitoring)
  12. Evaluation: Advanced Testing by Urology
    1. Biothesiometry
    2. Penile-brachial index
    3. Duplex Ultrasound (Color flow doppler)
    4. Cavernosometry or Cavernosography
    5. Arteriography
    6. Psychological Testing
  13. Management
    1. See Erectile Dysfunction Management
  14. Precautions: Cardiovascular Risk
    1. Erectile Dysfunction is a cardiovascular risk
      1. Mortality hazard ratio: 2.04
      2. Cardiovascular event hazard ratio: 1.62
      3. More severe Erectile Dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk
      4. Bohm (2010) Circulation 121:1375-1376 [PubMed]
    2. Erectile Dysfunction may be comorbid with cardiovascular disease
    3. Consider cardiovascular Risk Management
  15. References
    1. Beaudreau (August, 2000) Federal Practitioner, p. 11-8
    2. Ferris (1997) Fam Pract Recert 19(1):47-58
    3. Napolatono (1998) Fam Pract Recert 20(11): 34-58
    4. Dewire (1996) Am Fam Physician 53(6): 2101-6 [PubMed]
    5. Greiner (1996) Am Fam Physician 54(5): 1675-82 [PubMed]
    6. Guay (1995) Postgrad Med 97(4): 127-43 [PubMed]
    7. Jordan (1999) Postgrad Med 105(2): 131-47 [PubMed]
    8. Viera (1999) Am Fam Physician 60(4): 1159-66 [PubMed]
    9. Heidelbaugh (2010) Am Fam Physician 81(3): 305-12 [PubMed]
    10. McVary (2007) N Engl J Med 357(24): 2472-81 [PubMed]
    11. Rew (2016) Am Fam Physician 94(10): 820-7 [PubMed]

Erectile dysfunction (C0242350)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is when a man has trouble getting or keeping an erection. ED becomes more common as you get older. But male sexual dysfunction is not a natural part of aging.

Some people have trouble speaking with their doctors about sex. But if you have ED, you should tell your doctor. ED can be a sign of health problems. It may mean your blood vessels are clogged. It may mean you have nerve damage from diabetes. If you don't see your doctor, these problems will go untreated.

Your doctor can offer several new treatments for ED. For many men, the answer is as simple as taking a pill. Getting more exercise, losing weight or stopping smoking may also help.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by the persistent or recurrent inability to achieve or to maintain an erection during sexual activity.
Definition (NCI) A disorder characterized by the persistent or recurrent inability to achieve or to maintain an erection during sexual activity.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) An inability to have an erection of the penis adequate for sexual intercourse.
Definition (NCI) A disorder characterized by the persistent or recurrent inability to achieve or to maintain an erection during sexual activity.
Definition (CSP) inability to perform sexual intercourse.
Definition (MSH) The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D007172
ICD10 F52.21, N52.9, N52
SnomedCT 397803000, 23781003, 33967003, 398175007, 192466005, 154905005, 268762007, 367115006
DSM4 302.72
English Male erectile disorder, Dysfunction, Erectile, Impotence, Male Sexual, Erectile Dysfunction, Male Impotence, Impotence, Sexual Impotence, Male, Impotence, Male, Male Sexual Impotence, male erectile disorder, male erectile disorder (diagnosis), Erectile disturbance, Erection failure, Impotent, Impotence NOS, Male erectile dysfunction, unspecified, Erectile Dysfunction [Disease/Finding], impotence, erectile dysfunctions, erectile dysfunction, erection dysfunction, Dysfunction;erection, Dysfunction;sexual;impotence, sexual impotence, dysfunction erectile, dysfunctioning erectile, dysfunction erection, impotent, Erectile dysfunction NOS, ED, male erectile dysfunction (diagnosis), Male erectile dysfunction, Male erectile disorder (disorder), [X]Male erectile disorder, Sexual impotence (finding), [X] Male erectile disorder, IMPOTENCE, Failure of erection, Impotence (disorder), Sexual impotence, Erectile dysfunction, Impotence nos, disorder; erectile, disturbance; erectile, erectile; disorder, erection; failure, failure; erection, Sexual impotence, NOS, Impotence, NOS, Male Erectile Disorder
French IMPUISSANCE, Insuffisance érectile, Impuissant, Trouble érectile chez l'homme, Dysérection SAI, Dysfonctionnement érectile, Impuissance, Impuissance masculine, Impuissance sexuelle, Dysfonction érectile, Dysfonctionnement de l'érection, Trouble de l'érection, Trouble érectile, Dysérection, Dysfonction de l'érection pénienne
Portuguese IMPOTENCIA, Falta de erecção, Disfunção eréctil NE, Impotente, Disfunção eréctil masculina, Disfunção Erétil, Impotência, Impotência Sexual, Disfunção eréctil
Spanish IMPOTENCIA, Insuficiencia eréctil, Impotente, Disfunción erectil NEOM, Alteración eréctil, Trastorno eréctil masculino, Disfunción Eréctil, Impotencia, impotencia sexual, disfunción eréctil, impotencia sexual (hallazgo), trastorno de la erección en el varón (trastorno), trastorno de la erección en el varón, trastorno eréctil (trastorno), trastorno eréctil, Impotencia Sexual, impotencia (trastorno), impotencia, Disfunción eréctil
German IMPOTENZ, Erektionsversagen, maennliche Erektionsstoerung, impotent, Erektionsstoerung NNB, Erektile Dysfunktion, Männliche Impotenz, Männliche sexuelle Impotenz, Impotenz, Erektionsstoerung
Dutch falende erectie, impotent, impotentie, erectiele disfunctie NAO, erectiestoornis, erectiestoornis bij de man, Impotentie nao, erectie; slecht, erectie; stoornis, slecht; erectie, stoornis; erectie, erectiele disfunctie, Erectiele disfunctie
Italian Disfunzione erettile NAS, Impotente, Impotenza erettile, Disturbo dell'erezione maschile, Alterazione dell'erezione, Impotenza maschile, Disfunzione erettile, Impotenza sessuale maschile, Impotenza
Japanese 勃起力減退, 男性勃起不全, ボッキフゼンNOS, 勃起不全NOS, ダンセイボッキフゼン, ボッキフゼン, ボッキリョクゲンタイ, インポテンス, 勃起機能不全, 性交不能症, 繁殖不能(男性), 不能, 不能症, 機能障害-勃起, 勃起障害, インポテンツ, 性交不能, 勃起不全, 勃起機能障害, インポテンス, 陰萎
Finnish Erektiohäiriöt
Czech erektilní dysfunkce, Erektilní dysfunkce, Selhání erekce, Erektilní dysfunkce NOS, Erektilní porucha, Impotence, Impotentní, Erektilní porucha u muže, mužská impotence, impotence
Swedish Erektil dysfunktion
Polish Męska impotencja seksualna, Zaburzenia wzwodu, Impotencja męska, Zaburzenia erekcji, Męska niemoc płciowa
Hungarian Erectio képtelenség, Erectilis dysfunctio k.m.n., Impotens, Férfi erectilis dysfunctio, Erectilis zavar, Impotencia, Erectilis dysfunctio
Norwegian Sviktende genital respons, Ereksjonsproblem, Psykogen impotens
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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