Urology Book


Anatomy of the Penis

Aka: Anatomy of the Penis, Penile Anatomy, Penis, Erection
  1. See Also
    1. Genitourinary Anatomy in Men
    2. Male Urethral Anatomy
  2. Anatomy: General
    1. Cross Section
      1. uroMalePenisXsGrayBB588.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
      2. uroMalePenisXsGrayBB1155.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. Corpus
      1. uroMalePenisMusclesGrayBB1136.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
      2. uroMalePenisCorpusGrayBB1154.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  3. Anatomy: Shaft of Penis
    1. Corpus Cavernosum (two)
      1. Two large columns of erectile tissue on penile dorsum
      2. Columns separated by septum of fibers
    2. Tunica albuginea
      1. Bands together the two columns of corpus cavernosa
    3. Lacunar space (Space of Smith)
      1. Surrounds tunica albuginea
      2. Intralacunar Smooth Muscle found within space
    4. Corpus spongiosum
      1. Located on ventral side (underside) of penis
      2. Does not contribute to penile rigidity
      3. Contains Urethra
  4. Anatomy: Glans (Head) of Penis Innervation
    1. Sensation
      1. Pudendal nerve supplies dorsal nerves to penis
    2. Erectile function
      1. Parasympathetic input (excitatory)
        1. Nervi erigentes runs adjacent to Prostate Gland
        2. Parasympathetic Nerves join at hilum of penis
        3. Nerves course through corpus cavernosa
      2. Sympathetic input (inhibitory)
        1. Sympathetic Nerves supplied by thoracolumbar plexus
  5. Anatomy: Vascular Supply of the Penis
    1. Arterial inflow
      1. Supplies glans penis and shaft of penis
      2. Branches of deep internal pudendeal arteries
        1. Common penile artery
        2. Bulbar artery
        3. Dorsal artery
        4. Urethral artery
        5. Cavernosal artery
    2. Venous drainage
      1. Superficial penile veins
        1. Superficial dorsal vein
      2. Intermediate penile veins
        1. Emissary vein
        2. Circumflex vein
        3. Deep dorsal vein
      3. Deep penile veins
        1. Hilar vein (Santorini's Plexus)
        2. Cavernosal vein
  6. Physiology: Erection
    1. Step 1: Flaccid Penis
      1. Intralacunar (cavernosa) Smooth Muscle contracted
      2. Under Alpha adrenergic control (Norepinephrine)
    2. Step 2: Cavernous nerve stimulation (Parasympathetic)
      1. Alpha Adrenergic Receptor blockade
        1. Acetylcholine
        2. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
        3. Prostaglandin (Prostacyclin system)
        4. Nitric oxide (nitrergic system)
          1. Released from nerve endings
          2. Activates Guanosine Triphosphate to produce cGMP
      2. cGMP causes Smooth Muscle relaxation
      3. Intralacunar (cavernosa) Smooth Muscle relaxes
    3. Step 3: Arterial Inflow increases
      1. Lacunar space dilates
      2. Helicine artery dilates
    4. Step 4: Venous outflow blocked
      1. Subtunical venules compressed
      2. Emissary veins (in tunica albuginea) compressed
    5. Step 5: Erection as lacunar space pools with blood
      1. Blood fills space rapidly with arterial dilation
      2. Blood trapped due to venous constriction
    6. Step 6: Ejaculation (Sympathetic Stimulation)
      1. Controlled by hypogastric plexus sympathetic impulse
    7. Step 7: Detumescence (Penis flaccid again)
      1. Decreased parasympathetic tone
      2. Baseline sympathetic tone maintained
  7. References
    1. Jordan (1999) Postgrad Med 105(2): 131-47 [PubMed]

Penile Diseases (C0030846)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include

  • Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or keep an erection
  • Priapism - a painful erection that does not go away
  • Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump called a plaque
  • Balanitis - inflammation of the skin covering the head of the penis, most often in men and boys who have not been circumcised
  • Penile cancer - a rare form of cancer, highly curable when caught early
Definition (NCI) A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the penis. Representative examples of non-neoplastic disorders include phimosis, balanitis, and hypospadias. Representative examples of neoplastic disorders include hemangioma, penile intraepithelial neoplasia, and penile carcinoma.
Definition (CSP) condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the penis.
Definition (MSH) Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D010409
ICD9 607.9, 607
ICD10 N48.9
SnomedCT 33958003, 198041005, 155927008, 266639006, 155932009
English Disease, Penile, Diseases, Penile, Penile Diseases, PENIS DISORDER, Disorders of penis, Unspecified disorder of penis, penis disorder, Disorder of penis, unspecified, Penile disorders NOS, PENILE DIS, PENIS DIS, Disease of penis, Disease, Penis, Diseases, Penis, Penis Disease, Penis Diseases, penile disorders, disorder of penis (diagnosis), disorder of penis, Penile disorder NOS, Disorder penis, Disorder of penis NOS, Penile Diseases [Disease/Finding], penile diseases, diseases penis, penile disease, penis disease, penis disorders, disease penis, diseases of the penis, disorder penis, disorders penis, penile disorder, penis diseases, Penis Disorders, Penile disorders, Penile Disorders, Penile disorders NOS (disorder), Penis--Diseases, Penis disorder, disease (or disorder); penis, Disease of penis, NOS, Disorder of penis, NOS, Disorder of penis, Disease of penis (disorder), Disorder of penis (disorder), Penile Disease, Penile Disorder
Italian Patologia del pene, Patologie del pene, Patologia del pene NAS, Patologia non specificata del pene, Malattie del pene
Dutch aandoening penis, penisaandoening NAO, niet-gespecificeerde penisaandoening, penisaandoeningen, aandoening; penis, Aandoening van penis, niet gespecificeerd, penisaandoening, Penisziekte, Penisziekten, Ziekte, penis-, Ziekten, penis-
French Affection pénienne, Affections du pénis, Affection du pénis SAI, Affection non précisée du pénis, ATTEINTE DU PENIS, Trouble du pénis, Maladies du pénis, Maladies péniennes
German Affektion des Penis NNB, unspezifische Erkrankung des Penis, Erkrankungen des Penis, Krankheit des Penis, nicht naeher bezeichnet, PENISERKRANKUNG, Erkrankung des Penis, Peniskrankheiten
Portuguese Afecção do pénis, Afecção NE do pénis, Afecções do pénis, Doença do pénis NE, DISTURBIOS DO PENIS, Anomalia do pénis, Doenças do Pênis
Spanish Trastorno del pene NEOM, Trastorno no especificado del pene, Trastornos del pene, enfermedad del pene (trastorno), PENE, TRASTORNO, trastornos penianos, SAI (trastorno), Penile disorders NOS, trastornos penianos, SAI, enfermedad peniana, trastorno peniano, Trastorno de pene, trastorno del pene, trastorno del pene (trastorno), enfermedad del pene, Enfermedades del Pene
Japanese 陰茎障害NOS, 陰茎障害, 詳細不明の陰茎障害, インケイショウガイ, ショウサイフメイノインケイショウガイ, インケイショウガイNOS, 陰茎疾患
Swedish Penissjukdomar
Finnish Siittimen sairaudet
Czech Porucha penisu, Poruchy penisu, Porucha penisu NOS, Blíže neurčená porucha penisu, nemoci penisu, onemocnění penisu, penis - nemoci
Korean 상세불명의 음경의 장애
Polish Choroby prącia
Hungarian penisbetegség, Penis betegség, Penis betegség k.m.n., Penis betegségek, Penis nem meghatározott betegsége
Norwegian Sykdommer i penis
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Penile Erection (C0030847)

Definition (GO) The hardening, enlarging and rising of the penis which often occurs in the sexually aroused male and enables sexual intercourse. Achieved by increased inflow of blood into the vessels of erectile tissue, and decreased outflow. [GOC:jl, Wikipedia:Penile_erection]
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) In medicine, the swelling of the penis with blood, causing it to become firm.
Definition (NCI) The hardening, enlarging and rising of the penis which often occurs in the sexually aroused male.
Definition (CSP) physiological response of penile erectile tissue engorging with blood due to male sexual arousal.
Definition (MSH) The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
Concepts Organ or Tissue Function (T042)
MSH D010410
SnomedCT 60704006
English Erection, Penile, penis erection, Erectile, penile erection, penile erections, Penile Erection, Penis--Erection, erection, Penile erection, NOS, Erection (Penis), Erection
Swedish Peniserektion
Czech penis - erekce
Finnish Erektio
French Érection du pénis, Érection pénienne, Érection
Japanese 勃起陰茎, 陰茎勃起, 陰茎腫脹, 勃起
Polish Erekcja prącia, Wzwód prącia
Spanish erección peniana, erección peniana (hallazgo), erección del pene (hallazgo), erección del pene, Erección Peniana
German Peniserektion
Italian Erezione del pene
Dutch Erectie, penis-, Peniserectie
Portuguese Ereção Peniana
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

penis (C0030851)

Definition (NCI_CDISC) The male organ of urination and copulation. (NCI)
Definition (NCI) The male organ of urination and copulation.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) An external male reproductive organ. It contains a tube called the urethra, which carries semen and urine to the outside of the body.
Definition (MSH) The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Definition (CSP) male organ of copulation and urinary excretion.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D010413
SnomedCT 18911002
LNC LP34092-4, MTHU004206
English Penis, penis, Structure of the penis, penis structure, penile, PENIS, Penile structure, Penis structure, Penile structure (body structure), Penis, NOS, Genital System, Male, Penis
Swedish Penis
Czech penis
Finnish Siitin
Croatian PENIS
Latvian Dzimumloceklis
Polish Prącie
Spanish estructura de pene (estructura corporal), estructura peniana (estructura corporal), estructura peniana, estructura de pene, pene, Pene
Norwegian Penis
French Pénis, Verge
German Membrum virile, Penis, Phallus
Italian Pene
Dutch Membrum virile, Mentula, Penis, Phallus, Tentum
Portuguese Pênis
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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