Surgery Book

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Anterior Ankle Nerve Block

Aka: Anterior Ankle Nerve Block, Regional Anesthesia of the Anterior Ankle, Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block, Deep Peroneal Nerve Block, Saphenous Nerve Block
  1. See Also
    1. Posterior Ankle Nerve Block
    2. Distal Sciatic Nerve Block
    3. Regional Anesthesia (Nerve Block)
    4. Local Skin Anesthesia
    5. Field Block
    6. Hematoma Block
    7. Digital Block
    8. Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS)
  2. Indications
    1. Anesthesia of the dorsum of the foot
  3. Preparation
    1. Needle: 27 gauge 1.5 inch
    2. Skin preparation (e.g. Hibiclens or Betadine)
      1. See Regional Anesthesia
    3. Anesthetic
      1. See Regional Anesthesia for Anesthetic options
      2. Local Anesthetic 2-5 ml (Ultrasound) or 5-10 ml (landmark)
    4. Bedside Ultrasound (high frequency linear probe) guidance is recommended
  4. Technique: Saphenous Nerve Block
    1. Indications
      1. Anesthesia of the medial ankle and medial foot
    2. Ultrasound guided (preferred)
      1. Patient position
        1. Lateral decubitus position with the medial ankle upright
      2. Ultrasound probe
        1. Linear probe positioned transverse over the medial malleolus
      3. Injection
        1. Insert needle inline with probe from anterior to posterior
        2. Saphenous nerve is adjacent to greater saphenous vein
    3. Landmark Based
      1. Patient position
        1. Supine position with knee flexed and foot rests on table
      2. Injection
        1. Inject superior (proximal) and anterior to medial malleolus
        2. Direct the needle at 45 degree angle posteromedially
        3. Inject 3 cc subcutaneously along the course (but not within) the greater saphenous vein
          1. Greater saphenous vein parallels the saphenous nerve
  5. Technique: Deep Peroneal Nerve Block
    1. Indications
      1. Anesthesia of the first web space
    2. Landmarks
      1. Tibia (medial)
      2. Extensor Hallucis Longus Tendon
      3. Deep Peroneal Nerve
      4. Dorsalis Pedis Artery (midline ankle)
    3. Ultrasound guided (preferred)
      1. Position
        1. Patient Supine
      2. Ultrasound Probe
        1. Linear probe transverse to anterior ankle
      3. Injection
        1. Inline injection of Anesthetic at the deep peroneal nerve
    4. Landmark Based
      1. Position
        1. Patient Supine
        2. Knee Flexed
        3. Foot resting against table
      2. Landmarks
        1. Identify extensor hallucis longus tendon with great toe dorsiflexion against resistance
        2. Injection site is at level between malleoli, lateral to extensor hallucis longus (and medial to tibialis anterior)
      3. Injection
        1. Insert needle toward tibia at site 0.5 cm lateral to extensor hallucis longus tendon
        2. After striking tibia with needle, withdraw a few mm and aspirate to confirm not within artery
        3. Inject 5 cc Anesthetic
  6. Technique: Superficial peroneal nerve
    1. Indications
      1. Anesthesia of most of dorsal foot (and anterolateral leg)
    2. Ultrasound-Guided (preferred)
      1. Position
        1. Lateral decubitus position with lateral ankle up
      2. Ultrasound Probe
        1. Linear probe transverse to lateral ankle at 3-4 cm superior (proximal) to the lateral malleolus
      3. Landmarks
        1. Posterior Ankle
          1. Peroneus Brevis Muscle (superficial)
          2. Fibula (deep)
        2. Mid-Ankle
          1. Superficial Peroneal Nerve
        3. Anterior Ankle
          1. Extensor Digitorum Muscle (superficial)
          2. Tibia (deep)
      4. Injection
        1. Inline injection of Anesthetic at the superficial peroneal nerve
    3. Landmark Based
      1. Position
        1. Patient supine with knee flexed and foot resting on table
      2. Landmarks
        1. Anterior tibial border AND
        2. Superior to lateral malleolus
      3. Injection
        1. Inject superior to lateral malleolus at 10-15 degree angle towards anterolateral tibia
        2. Inject 5 cc along the course of the needle
  7. Precautions
    1. Avoid injecting directly into nerves
    2. Distal Paresthesias with needle with injection
      1. Indicates needle is in nerve
      2. Do not inject here!
      3. Remove needle and reposition
  8. References
    1. Pfenninger (1994) Procedures, Mosby, p. 1036-54
    2. Salam (2004) Am Fam Physician 69(4):896 [PubMed]
    3. Yurgil (2020) Am Fam Physician 101(11):654-64 [PubMed]

Local anesthetic deep peroneal nerve block (C0394746)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
SnomedCT 231176000
English LA deep peroneal nerve block, Local anesthetic deep peroneal nerve block, Deep peroneal nerve block, Local anaesthetic deep peroneal nerve block, Local anesthetic deep peroneal nerve block (procedure)
Spanish bloqueo con anestesia local de nervio tibial anterior, bloqueo de nervio peroneo profundo con anestésico local (procedimiento), bloqueo con anestesia local de nervio tibial anterior (procedimiento), bloqueo de nervio peroneo profundo con anestésico local
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Local anesthetic superficial peroneal nerve block (C0394747)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
SnomedCT 231177009
English Superfic peroneal nerve block, LA superfic peroneal nrv block, superficial peroneal nerve block, nerve block of superficial peroneal nerve (treatment), nerve block of superficial peroneal nerve, Superficial peroneal nerve block, Local anaesthetic superficial peroneal nerve block, Local anesthetic superficial peroneal nerve block, Local anesthetic superficial peroneal nerve block (procedure)
Spanish bloqueo con anestesia local de nervio musculocutáneo (procedimiento), bloqueo de nervio peroneo superficial con anestésico local, bloqueo con anestesia local de nervio musculocutáneo, bloqueo de nervio peroneo superficial con anestésico local (procedimiento)
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


nerve block of saphenous nerve (C2053692)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
English saphenous nerve block, nerve block of saphenous nerve (treatment), nerve block of saphenous nerve
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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