Sports Medicine Book


Sports Performance Supplement

Aka: Sports Performance Supplement, Ergogenic Aid, Anabolic Aid
  1. See Also
    1. Nutrition for Athletes
    2. Drug Abuse in Athletes
  2. Epidemiology
    1. U.S. Supplement revenue in 1997: 11.8 Billion
    2. Incidence of supplement use
      1. General population: 50%
      2. College athletes: 76%
      3. Body builders: 100%
  3. Efficacy
    1. Supplements listed here are for completeness only
      1. No supplement is endorsed by this resource
      2. Many supplements are dangerous and illegal
    2. Ergogenic Aids generally have poor risk-benefit ratio
      1. Few Ergogenic Aids are beneficial
      2. Many Ergogenic Aids carry significant risks
  4. Preparations: Adrenergic Stimulants
    1. Caffeine
      1. Athletes are limited to 12 mcg/ml urine (NCAA) and 15 mcg/ml (IOC)
      2. Performance enhancing in endurance sports
        1. Kovacs (1998) J Appl Physiol 85(2): 709-15 [PubMed]
        2. Bruce (2000) Med Sci Sports Exerc 32(11): 1958-63 [PubMed]
    2. Cocaine
    3. Phenylpropanolamine
    4. Ephedrine, Ephedra, and Pseudoephedrine
      1. Prohibited by IOC and NCAA
      2. Possibly effective in increasing Exercise performance and strength
      3. However, the potential adverse effects are serious and outweigh any possible benefit
        1. Shekelle (2003) JAMA 289(12): 1537-45 [PubMed]
    5. Dimethylamylamine (DMAA)
      1. Banned by world anti-doping agency, U.S. Military, as well as several countries including Canada
      2. Risk of vasconstriction, Hypertension and coronary events
  5. Preparations: Anabolic agents (banned by IOC and NCAA)
    1. Insulin
    2. Anabolic Steroids
      1. Androstenedione
      2. Dianabol
      3. Testosterone
      4. Dihydrotestosterone
    3. Human Growth Hormone (banned by IOC and NCAA)
      1. Used to enhance growth in Short Stature
      2. Precursor to Testosterone
      3. Produced by recombinant Genetics
      4. Very expensive, difficult to detect
      5. No benefit for strength and endurance in athletes
        1. Liu (2008) Ann Intern Med 148(10): 747-58 [PubMed]
  6. Preparations: Anti-Asthma Medications (for performance enhancement)
    1. Clenbuterol
    2. Albuterol
    3. Salbutamol
    4. Salmeterol
    5. Terbutaline
  7. Preparations: Increased Red Blood Cell Mass
    1. Blood Doping
    2. Recombinant Erythropoietin
  8. Preparations: Nutritional Supplements
    1. Creatine Monohydrate
    2. Amino Acid Supplement (Arginine Aspartate Supplement)
    3. Chromium Picolinate
      1. Reported cases of liver and renal dysfunction and Rhabdomyolysis
      2. No increase in Exercise performance or strength
        1. Davis (2000) Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 10(4):476-85 [PubMed]
        2. Livolsi (2001) J Strength Cond Res 15(2): 161-6 [PubMed]
    4. Iron Supplementation
      1. Indicated in Iron Deficiency (esp. women)
      2. No benefit for athletes with normal iron stores (and risk of Hemochromatosis)
    5. L-Carnitine
    6. L-Tryptophan
    7. Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB)
    8. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
  9. References
    1. Armsey (1997) Physician Sports Med 25(6):77-92
    2. Eichner (1997) Physician Sports Med 25(4): 70-83
    3. Ahrendt (2001) Am Fam Physician 63(5):913-22 [PubMed]
    4. Catlin (1996) JAMA 276(3): 231-7 [PubMed]
    5. Jenkinson (2008) Am Fam Physician 78(9):1039-46 [PubMed]

dietary supplement, SPORT (C0912402)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
MSH C404755
English SPORT, dietary supplement, dietary supplement, SPORT
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Anabolic Agents (C1258800)

Definition (MSH) These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D045930
French Anabolisants, Agents anabolisants
Swedish Anabola medel
Czech anabolika
Finnish Anaboliset aineet
English anabolic agents, Agents, Anabolic, Anabolic Agents
Polish Leki pobudzające syntezę białek, Leki anaboliczne, Anaboliki
Spanish Anabolizantes, Efecto Anabolizante, Agentes Anabólicos, Agentes Anabolizantes
Norwegian Anabole steroider
Portuguese Agentes Anabolizantes, Efeito Anabolizante, Agentes Anabólicos, Anabolizantes
German Anabolika
Italian Anabolizzanti
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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