Sports Medicine Book


Strength Training

Aka: Strength Training, Resistance Training, Progressive Resistance Training, One Repetition Maximum, Isometric Exercise, Isometric Muscle Contraction, Isotonic Exercise, Isotonic Muscle Contraction, Isokinetic Exercise, Plyometrics, Eccentric Exercise, Core Muscle Exercise, Open Kinetic Chain Exercise, Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise
  1. Definitions
    1. One Repetition Maximum
      1. Maximal weight that given Muscle can lift once
      2. Use to calculate starting strength program
  2. Physiology
    1. Stages of Resistance Training (first 3-4 weeks)
      1. Strength gains from neural changes, motor unit firing
      2. Later strength gains from Muscle fiber hypertrophy
    2. MuscleFiber Types
      1. Type I (slow twitch)
      2. Type IIa (can be adapted to either slow or fast)
      3. Type IIb (fast twitch)
  3. Approach: Training Goals
    1. Muscular strength
      1. High intensity Exercise
      2. High level of resistance
      3. Low number of repetitions (maximum: 6 repetitions)
    2. Muscular endurance
      1. Low intensity Exercise
      2. Low level of resistance
      3. High number of repetitions (maximum: 20 repetitions)
    3. General Fitness
      1. Range: 8-12 repetitions
  4. Types: Resistance Training
    1. Isometric Exercise (Isometric Muscle Contraction)
      1. Muscle Contraction without joint movement
      2. Muscle length remains constant
      3. Typically requres two opposing Muscles to fire simultaneously (e.g. biceps Muscle and triceps Muscle)
      4. Example: Hold a weight in hand for a set period of time
      5. Indications: Muscle toning and strengthening when joint use is restricted
    2. Isotonic Exercise (Isotonic Muscle Contraction)
      1. Constant Muscle resistance applied to joint range of motion
      2. Muscle shortens as it contracts, maintaining the same Muscle tension throughout movement
      3. Typically involves the contraction of an isolated Muscle group (e.g. biceps Muscle)
      4. Example: Training with weight machines and free weights
      5. Indications: Typical weight training regimen for general Muscle conditioning
    3. Isokinetic Exercise
      1. Variable resistance with fixed speed
      2. Trained with Cybex or Biodex Machines
    4. Eccentric Exercises
      1. Muscle lengthens while it contracts
      2. Example: Triceps lengthens during elbow extension
    5. Core Muscle Exercises
      1. Muscle Strengthening of the low back and Abdomen
      2. Examples: Pilates, Medicine Ball, Sit-Ups
    6. Variable resistance throughout Range of Motion
      1. Maximum overload training with cams and pulleys
    7. Plyometrics
      1. Eccentric loading with concentric Muscle action
      2. Trained with Hops, bounds, and depth jumps
  5. Types: Kinetic Chain
    1. Open Kinetic Chain Exercise
      1. Distal extremity moves about fixed proximal extremity
      2. Example: Arm Curls (biceps contractions) move hand in arc around elbow
    2. Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise
      1. Proximal extremity moves about fixed distal extremity
      2. Example: Squats (feet are planted while knees are flexed and extended)
  6. Protocol: Strength Training Routine (total time 30-60 minutes)
    1. General: Does not replace sports-related training
    2. Warm-Up
    3. Strength Training
    4. Cool down
  7. Protocol: Program Design
    1. Initial design
      1. First 2 to 3 weeks: low volume with low intensity
    2. Overload principle
      1. Increase intensity, volume, and frequency
      2. End each set with maximum voluntary contraction
    3. Full range of motion should be Exercised
    4. Balance
      1. Train both agonist and antagonist Muscle groups
    5. Sequence
      1. Larger Muscle groups should be trained first
      2. Progress to smaller groups during workout
    6. Periodization
      1. Macrocycle: Year length cycle
      2. Mesocycle: Month length cycle
      3. Microcycle: Day to day variation over course of week
    7. Safety
      1. Spotter Use
        1. Particularly useful in final set
        2. Helps to coach on form
      2. Breathing
        1. Exhalation during lifting phase
        2. Inhalation during lowering phase
  8. Protocol: Starting Regimen
    1. Perform 2-3 days per week
    2. Consider performing as circuit training
    3. Work each Muscle group individually
    4. Intensity increases with each set
      1. Low Intensity (40% of One Repetition Maximum)
        1. One set of 10-15 repetitions
      2. Moderate Intensity (40-60% of One Repetition Maximum)
        1. One set of 8-10 repetitions
      3. High Intensity (>60% of One Repetition Maximum)
        1. One set of 6-8 repetitions
    5. Advancing weights
      1. Advance when low intensity can be repeated 15 times
    6. Core Muscle Strength (10 repetitions for 1 set each)
      1. Balance ball may be used
      2. Abdominal curls
      3. Back extensions

Isometric Contraction (C0022205)

Definition (MSH) Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Concepts Organ or Tissue Function (T042)
MSH D007537
SnomedCT 60534004
English Contraction, Isometric, Contractions, Isometric, Isometric Contraction, Isometric Contractions, Muscle isometric contraction, function, contraction isometric muscle, contractions isometric muscle, isometric contraction, isometric contractions, isometric muscle contraction, Muscle isometric contraction, Muscle isometric contraction, function (observable entity), Muscle isometric contraction (function)
Swedish Isometrisk sammandragning
Czech isometrická kontrakce
Finnish Isometrinen supistus
Polish Skurcz izometryczny
Norwegian Isometrisk muskelsammentrekning, Isometrisk kontraksjon
Spanish contracción muscular isométrica (entidad observable), contracción muscular isométrica (función), contracción muscular isométrica, Contracción Isométrica
French Contraction isométrique
German Isometrische Kontraktion
Italian Contrazione isometrica
Dutch Contractie, isometrische, Isometrische contractie
Portuguese Contração Isométrica
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Isotonic Contraction (C0022259)

Definition (MSH) Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.
Concepts Organ or Tissue Function (T042)
MSH D007551
SnomedCT 61428000
English Contraction, Isotonic, Contractions, Isotonic, Isotonic Contraction, Isotonic Contractions, Muscle isotonic contraction, function, isotonic contraction, isotonic muscle contraction, Muscle isotonic contraction, Muscle isotonic contraction, function (observable entity), Muscle isotonic contraction (function)
Swedish Isoton sammandragning
Czech isotonická kontrakce
Finnish Isotoninen supistus
Polish Skurcz izotoniczny
Norwegian Isoton muskelsammentrekning, Isoton kontraksjon
Spanish contracción muscular isotónica (entidad observable), contracción muscular isotónica (función), contracción muscular isotónica, Contracción Isotónica
French Contraction isotonique
German Isotonische Kontraktion
Italian Contrazione isotonica
Dutch Contractie, isotonische, Isotonische contractie
Portuguese Contração Isotônica
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Resistance education (C0814409)

Concepts Health Care Activity (T058)
English Resistance education, resistance education, social inoculation, social resistance skill training, resistance training, training resistance
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Resistance Training (C0872279)

Definition (MSH) A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
MSH D055070
English Training, Resistance, Training, Strength, Strength Training, Resistance Training, strength training, strength train
Spanish Musculación, Entrenamiento de Resistencia
Italian Allenamento di resistenza, Allenamento di forza
German Krafttraining, Widerstandstraining
Portuguese Treinamento de Resistência, Musculação
Swedish Styrketräning
Czech odporový trénink, silový trénink, posilovací trénink
French Entraînement en résistance, Entraînement en force
Polish Program ćwiczeń siłowych, Program siłowych ćwiczeń wzmacniających, Ćwiczenia oporowe, Program ćwiczeń podnoszenia ciężarów, Trening oporowy, Ćwiczenia siłowe, Program ćwiczeń w obciążeniu, Program ćwiczeń wzmacniających czynnych w obciążeniu, Trening siłowy
Japanese レジスタンストレーニング, レジスタンス運動, レジスタンス・トレーニング, トレーニング-レジスタンス, レジスタンスエクササイズ
Norwegian Motstandstrening, Styrkeøvelser, Motstandsøvelser, Styrketrening
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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