Sports Medicine Book


Pre-participation Exam

Aka: Pre-participation Exam, Preparticipation Exam, Sports Physical Exam
  1. See Also
    1. Preparticipation Physical Evaluation
    2. Pre-participation History
    3. Pre-participation Special Circumstances
    4. Station Divided Sports Physical
    5. Sports Participation Disqualifiers
    6. Sports Contact Levels (Contact Sport or Collision Sport)
    7. Sports Intensity Levels (Dynamic Sports, Static Sports)
    8. Athletic Heart Syndrome
    9. Arrhythmias in Athletes
    10. Sudden Death in Athletes
  2. Background
    1. Most common abnormal physical findings
      1. Elevated Blood Pressure
      2. Decreased Visual Acuity
    2. Structured preparticipation physical is recommended
      1. Cardiovascular examination (e.g. pathologic Heart Murmurs) are a key focus of the exam
  3. Exam: General
    1. Height
    2. Weight
    3. Body habitus
      1. Marfan Syndrome findings (tall and thin with long extremities and joint hyperflexibility)
      2. Low Body Mass Index (Female Athlete Triad)
    4. Vital Signs
  4. Exam: Eye
    1. Visual Acuity
      1. Blind in one eye OR
      2. Severe Myopia (Corrected worse than 20/50 in 1 eye)
    2. Protective eye wear (Glasses, Contact Lenses)
    3. Amblyopia
    4. Anisocoria
    5. Detached Retina
    6. Early Coronary Artery Disease changes
    7. Diabetic Retinopathy
  5. Exam: Cardiovascular
    1. Examination points
      1. Blood Pressure (brachial)
      2. Pulse
        1. Rate and rhythm
        2. Distal pulse quality and symmetry (e.g. radial and femoral pulses)
      3. Cardiac auscultation for murmur (see below)
    2. Indications for Hypertension further evaluation
      1. Age <10 years old: Blood Pressure >130/75
      2. Age >10 years old: Blood Pressure >140/85
    3. Heart Murmurs
      1. Evaluate in 2 positions (e.g. Standing and squatting)
      2. Evaluate with Valsalva
      3. Indications for further evaluation
        1. Murmur grade 3 of 6 or louder
        2. Any Diastolic Murmur
        3. Murmur accentuated with Valsalva or on standing
          1. Suggests Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
      4. Further cardiac testing
        1. Electrocardiogram
        2. Stress EKG
        3. Echocardiogram
    4. Other findings requiring further evaluation
      1. Cyanosis
  6. Exam: Pulmonary
    1. Diaphragm excursion
    2. Breath Sounds
    3. Asthma
    4. Bronchitis
  7. Exam: Gastrointestinal
    1. Abdominal Masses
    2. Organomegaly
    3. Hepatosplenomegaly
    4. Kidney size
  8. Exam: Dermatologic
    1. Acne Vulgaris
    2. Infectious rash (e.g. Herpes Simplex Virus)
    3. Atopic rash
    4. Suspicious nevi
    5. Surgical and Traumatic Scars
  9. Exam: Musculoskeletal
    1. Orthopedic screening: Brief Musculoskeletal Exam
    2. Back
      1. Scoliosis
      2. Kyphosis or Lordosis
    3. Knee and ankle (unstable)
    4. Shoulder (Recurrent dislocation)
    5. Assess elbow stability
    6. Painful Osgood Schlatter disease
    7. Marfan's Syndrome
  10. Exam: Neurologic
    1. Gross coordination
    2. Gait Abnormality
  11. Exam: Genitourinary Male
    1. Testicles
      1. Single unpaired Testicle
      2. Undescended Testicle (Cryptorchidism)
      3. Testicular Masses
    2. Inguinal Hernia
    3. Tanner stage
      1. See Sexual Development in Boys
    4. Discuss Self-Testicle exam
      1. Testicular Cancer peak Incidence in age 18-35 years
  12. Exam: Genitourinary Female
    1. No longer done routinely with Sports Physical now
    2. Schedule separate gynecologic exam if indicated
    3. Ask about Amenorrhea (Female Athlete Triad)
    4. Tanner Staging or Menstrual dating
      1. See Sexual Development in Girls
  13. Resources
    1. Preparticipation Exam
  14. References
    1. Kurowski (2000) Am Fam Physician 61(9): 2683-90 [PubMed]
    2. MacDonald (2021) Am Fam Physician 103(9): 539-46 [PubMed]
    3. Mirabelli (2015) Am Fam Physician 92(5): 371-6 [PubMed]

Examination for participation in sport (C0476715)

Concepts Finding (T033)
ICD10 Z02.5
SnomedCT 316551002
English Exam/participation in sport, Examination for participation in sport, [V]Examination for participation in sport (context-dependent category), [V]Exam/participation in sport, [V]Examination for participation in sport, [V]Examination for participation in sport (situation), examination; medical, participation in sport, examination; medical, sport
Spanish [V]examen para la participación deportiva (categoría dependiente del contexto), [V]examen para la participación deportiva, [V]examen para la participación deportiva (situación)
German Untersuchung zur Teilnahme am Sport
Korean 운동 경기 참가를 위한 검사
Dutch onderzoek; medisch, deelname aan sport, onderzoek; medisch, sport, Sportkeuring
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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