Nephrology Book

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Dietary Sodium

Aka: Dietary Sodium, Sodium Chloride in Food, Table Salt, Iodized Salt, High Sodium Diet, Excessive Salt Intake, Low Sodium Diet, Low Dietary Salt, Salt Restriction
  1. Background
    1. Sodium Chloride (Table Salt, NaCl)
    2. Dietary Uses
      1. Preservative
      2. Seasoning
    3. Daily physiologic need
      1. See Sodium and Water Homeostasis
      2. Sodium intake of 500 mg
  2. Dosing
    1. Adequate Intake of Sodium: 1500 mg/day
    2. Low Sodium Diet
      1. Recommended Daily Sodium Limit in Comorbid conditions (e.g. CHF, Hypertension): 2300 mg/day
    3. High Sodium Diet
      1. Typical Intake of Sodium in U.S. (excessive) > 3400 mg/day
  3. Preparations: Common Food Sources of High Sodium
    1. Breads
      1. Sodium 80 to 230 mg per slice bread
    2. Frozen Pizza
      1. Sodium 370 to 730 mg per slice pizza
    3. Hamburgers
      1. Sodium averages 500 mg per serving
    4. Hot Dogs or brats
      1. Sodium 500-600 mg per serving (may contain >1000 mg in some brands)
    5. Processed Meat Slices (e.g. cold cuts, ham, turkey, submarine sandwiches)
      1. Sodium 1100 mg per 3 oz ham or a 6 inch submarine sandwich
    6. Snacks (chips, crackers, pretzels)
      1. Sodium in hard pretzels 300 to 400 mg per ounce
    7. Tacos
      1. Sodium 200-300 mg per taco
    8. Burrito
      1. Sodium 900-1000 mg per burrito
    9. Canned Soups
      1. Sodium averages 700 mg per cup of soup
    10. Salad Dressing
      1. Sodium averages 300 mg per 2 tsp bottled salad dressing
    11. Cheese
      1. Sodium 300-400 mg per slice of processed cheese
    12. Pickled Cucumber
      1. Sodium 700-800 mg per medium pickled cucumber
  4. Adverse Effects: Excessive Dietary Salt
    1. Worsening of Hypertension
    2. Congestive Heart Failure exacerbation
    3. Osteopenia or Osteoporosis (due to related Calcium losses)
  5. Resources
    1. Salt and Sodium (Harvard)
      1. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/salt-and-sodium/

Low sodium diet (C0012169)

Definition (HL7V3.0) <p>A diet low in sodium for patients with congestive heart failure and/or renal failure.</p>
Definition (MSH) A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Definition (CSP) diet low in sodium.
Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
MSH D004039
SnomedCT 172644004, 138048002, 47059008, 437421000124105, 386619000
HL7 LS
English Diet, Low Salt, Diet, Low-Salt, Diet, Sodium Restricted, Diet, Sodium-Restricted, Diets, Low-Salt, Diets, Sodium-Restricted, Low-Salt Diet, Low-Salt Diets, Sodium-Restricted Diet, Sodium-Restricted Diets, low salt diet, Diet, Low Sodium, Diet, Low-Sodium, Diets, Low-Sodium, Low-Sodium Diet, Low-Sodium Diets, low sodium diet (treatment), low sodium diet, diet restrict sodium, diets low salt, diets restricted sodium, low-salt diet, diet reducing salt, low-sodium diet, sodium diet low, low-salt diets, low-sodium diets, diet low salt, diets low sodium, diet low sodium, sodium restricted diet, Low sodium diet, Sodium restricted diet (finding), Decreased sodium diet (regime/therapy), Decreased sodium diet, Sodium restricted diet, Decrease in sodium content of the diet compared to the assessed baseline intake of sodium for the individual. (Source: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Nutrition Informatics Committee 2013), Low salt diet, Na - Low sodium diet, Reduced salt diet, Reduced sodium diet, Restricted salt diet, Restricted sodium diet, Low sodium diet (finding), Sodium restricted diet, NOS, Low salt diet, NOS, low sodium
Dutch natriumarm dieet, Dieet, zoutarm
French Régime à faible teneur en sel, Régime pauvre en sel, Régime alimentaire pauvre en sel
German salzarme Diaet, Diät, geringer Natriumgehalt, Diät, natriumarme, Diät, salzarme, Natriumarme Diät
Portuguese Dieta pobre em sódio, Dieta Hipossódica, Dieta com pouco Sal, Dieta com pouco Sódio
Spanish Dieta baja en sodio, dieta restringida en sodio, dieta pobre en sal, dieta hiposódica (hallazgo), dieta hiposódica, Dieta Hiposódica, Dieta con poca Sal, Dieta con poco Sodio
Japanese 低ナトリウム食, テイナトリウムショク, 減塩食, 食-減塩, 食塩制限食
Swedish Kost, saltfattig
Finnish Vähäsuolainen ruokavalio
Russian DIETA S OGRANICHENIEM NATRIIA, DIETA NIZKOSOLEVAIA, ДИЕТА НИЗКОСОЛЕВАЯ, ДИЕТА С ОГРАНИЧЕНИЕМ НАТРИЯ
Czech Dieta s nízkým obsahem sodíku, dieta neslaná, dieta s nízkým obsahem soli, dieta s nízkým obsahem sodíku
Italian Dieta a basso contenuto di sale, Dieta a basso contenuto di sodio, Dieta iposodica
Croatian DIJETA S MALIM SADRŽAJEM SOLI, PREHRANA S OGRANIČENIM UNOSOM SOLI
Polish Dieta bezsolna, Dieta niskosodowa
Hungarian Alacsony nátriumtartalmú étrend
Norwegian Saltfattig diett, Saltfattig kost, Saltredusert kosthold, Saltredusert diett, Saltredusert kost, Saltfattig kosthold
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Sodium, Dietary (C0037570)

Definition (NCI_CRCH) Forms of the element sodium found in foods.
Definition (MSH) Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
Definition (CSP) sodium or sodium compounds in foods; most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
Concepts Food (T168)
MSH D012982
English Dietary Sodium, dietary sodium, Sodium, Dietary, Sodium, Dietary [Chemical/Ingredient], Na, Sodium
Swedish Natrium i kosten
Czech sodík dietní
Finnish Ravinnon natrium
Russian NATRII PISHCHEVOI, PISHCHEVOI NATRII, НАТРИЙ ПИЩЕВОЙ, ПИЩЕВОЙ НАТРИЙ
Japanese 食品中のナトリウム, 食物ナトリウム, ナトリウム-食品, 食品ナトリウム, 食品中のナトリウム成分
Croatian Not Translated[Sodium, Dietary]
Polish Sód w pokarmach
French Sodium alimentaire
German Nahrungsnatrium, Natrium, Nahrungs-
Italian Sodio alimentare
Portuguese Sódio na Dieta
Spanish Sodio en la Dieta
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


iodized salt (C0063758)

Concepts Food (T168)
MSH C034024
SnomedCT 442801000124100
English iodized salt, iodinated salt, iodised salt, salt, iodized, Iodized salt, Iodized salt (substance), Iodised salt
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Sodium Chloride, Dietary (C0206136)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function of nerves and muscles. It also helps to keep the right balance of fluids in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too much and your kidneys can't get rid it, sodium builds up in your blood. This can lead to high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to other health problems.

Most people in the U.S. get more sodium in their diets than they need. A key to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than 2.4 grams per day. That equals about 1 teaspoon of table salt a day. Reading food labels can help you see how much sodium is in prepared foods.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Definition (MSH) Sodium chloride used in foods.
Concepts Food (T168) , Inorganic Chemical (T197)
MSH D017673
English Dietary Sodium Chloride, Table Salt, Chloride, Dietary Sodium, Salt, Table, dietary salt (sodium chloride), Sodium Chloride, Dietary [Chemical/Ingredient], dietary salt, table salt, Salt, Dietary Sodium, Sodium Chloride, Dietary
French Sel de table, Chlorure de sodium alimentaire
Swedish Koksalt i kosten
Czech sůl kuchyňská
Finnish Ravinnon suola
Russian NATRII KHLORISTYI PISHCHEVOI, PISHCHEVOI KHLORISTYI NATRII, STOLOVAIA SOL', NATRIIA KHLORID PISHCHEVOI, НАТРИЙ ХЛОРИСТЫЙ ПИЩЕВОЙ, НАТРИЯ ХЛОРИД ПИЩЕВОЙ, ПИЩЕВОЙ ХЛОРИСТЫЙ НАТРИЙ, СТОЛОВАЯ СОЛЬ
Italian Sale da tavola, Cloruro di sodio alimentare
Croatian KUHINJSKA SOL, NATRIJEV KLORID, ALIMENTARNI
Polish Sól spożywcza, Chlorek sodowy w pokarmach, Sól stołowa, Sól kuchenna
Japanese 食塩, 塩化ナトリウム-食品, 塩分, 食卓塩, 食品塩化ナトリウム, 食品中の塩化ナトリウム
German Natriumchlorid in der Nahrung, Natriumchlorid, Nahrungs-, Tafelsalz
Portuguese Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta, Sal de Cozinha
Spanish Sal de Mesa, Cloruro de Sodio Dietético
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


High sodium diet (C0452340)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
SnomedCT 437411000124102, 226157005
English diets high sodium, diet high sodium, high sodium diet, Increase in sodium content of the diet compared to the assessed baseline intake of sodium for the individual. (Source: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Nutrition Informatics Committee 2013), Increased sodium diet (regime/therapy), Increased sodium diet, High sodium diet, Na - High sodium diet, High sodium diet (finding)
Spanish dieta con alto contenido de sodio, dieta rica en sodio (hallazgo), dieta rica en sodio
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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