Nephrology Book



Aka: Edema, Fluid Overload, Generalized Edema
  1. See Also
    1. Edema
    2. Generalized Edema Below the Diaphragm
    3. Generalized Edema Above the Diaphragm
    4. Localized Edema Causes
    5. Medication Causes of Edema
  2. Definition
    1. Abnormal interstitial fluid accumulation in the intercellular space
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. Mechanisms
      1. Loss of vascular integrity
        1. Changes in capillary hemodynamics
      2. Oncotic pressure gradient changes across the capillary membrane (between capillary and interstitial space)
        1. Increased tissue oncotic pressure (increased interstitial protein concentration) or
        2. Decreased plasma oncotic pressure (decreased Serum Albumin)
      3. Increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure
        1. Norepinephrine results in renal Vasoconstriction
        2. Renin results in Sodium absorption
        3. Aldosterone results in water retention
    2. Localized Edema
      1. See Localized Edema
    3. Generalized Edema
      1. See Generalized Edema Below the Diaphragm
      2. See Generalized Edema Above the Diaphragm
      3. Implies >3 Liters interstitial fluid accumulation
      4. Sodium and water retention mediated by renal Vasoconstriction and renin and aldosterone (as above)
        1. Kidney senses decreased perfusion
        2. Kidney senses decreased circulating volume
  4. Causes
    1. Categories of Edema
      1. Localized Edema Causes
      2. Generalized Edema Above the Diaphragm
      3. Generalized Edema Below the Diaphragm
    2. Miscellaneous Edema Types
      1. Medication Causes of Edema
      2. Exercise edema
      3. Idiopathic Edema
      4. High Altitude Edema (Facial and lower limb edema)
      5. Tropical Edema
      6. Periodic edema
  5. History
    1. Onset in last 72 hours?
      1. Exclude DVT, Cellulitis, Trauma
    2. Dependent Edema?
      1. Venous Insufficiency improves with limb elevation
      2. Will not improve with elevation in conditions with decreased plasma oncotic pressure (e.g. Cirrhosis, Nephrotic Syndrome, malabsorption)
    3. Unilateral or bilateral
      1. See Localized Edema Causes
      2. Generalized Edema Above the Diaphragm
      3. Generalized Edema Below the Diaphragm
      4. Medication Causes of Edema
  6. Symptoms
    1. Unexplained weight gain
    2. Ring tightness
    3. Shoe tightness
    4. Facial swelling or puffiness
    5. Swollen arms or legs
    6. Abdominal Distention
  7. Signs
    1. See Edema Exam
    2. Palpable swelling of skin or subcutaneous tissue
      1. Pitting Edema
      2. Non-Pitting Edema (Brawny Edema)
  8. Diagnostics
    1. Electrocardiogram
      1. Indicated for Chest Pain
  9. Imaging
    1. Chest XRay Indications
      1. Dyspnea or
      2. BNP not available
    2. Echocardiogram Indications
      1. Suspected Pulmonary Hypertension (e.g. Obstructive Sleep Apnea)
      2. Suspected Congestive Heart Failure
        1. Increased BNP or
        2. Generalized Leg Edema in age over 45 years old (or other risks for Cardiomyopathy or CHF)
        3. Blankfield (1998) Am J Med 105:192-7 [PubMed]
    3. Extremity Doppler Ultrasound Indications
      1. Unilateral or asymmetric extremity edema
      2. Deep Vein Thrombosis suspected
      3. Confirm Venous Insufficiency
    4. Indirect radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy
      1. Confirmation of Lymphedema
    5. Magnetic Resonance Angiography with venography of lower extremity and Pelvis
      1. Pelvic or thigh Deep Vein Thrombosis suspected despite negative venous Doppler Ultrasound
  10. Labs: First-line
    1. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide
      1. CHF unlikely if BNP normal
        1. Test Sensitivity 90%: BNP <100 pg/ml
        2. Test Sensitivity 96%: BNP <50 pg/ml)
      2. Maisel (2001) N Engl J Med 347(3): 161-7 [PubMed]
    2. Urinalysis
      1. Evaluate for large Proteinuria (Nephrotic Syndrome)
    3. Comprehensive metabolic panel
      1. Renal Function test (Serum Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen or BUN)
      2. Liver Function Test
        1. Optional if examiner can reliably exclude significant Ascites based on examination or Bedside Ultrasound
  11. Labs: As indicated
    1. Serum Albumin
      1. Indicated for large Urine Protein positive suggestive of Nephrotic Syndrome
    2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    3. Urine test for Thiazides or Phenolphthalein
      1. Indicated in suspected Eating Disorder
      2. Confirms Diuretic abuse or Laxative abuse
  12. Approach: Bilateral Leg Edema in Emergency Department
    1. Most critical causes to exclude
      1. Congestive Heart Failure
      2. Nephrotic Syndrome
      3. Cirrhosis
    2. Diagnostics
      1. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
        1. Obtain Echocardiogram if BNP >100 pg/ml (especially if age >45)
      2. Basic metabolic panel
        1. Adding Liver Function Tests and Serum Albumin is optional (if Ascites excluded on exam or Bedside Ultrasound)
      3. Urinalysis
        1. Evaluate for large Proteinuria
      4. Bedside Abdominal Ultrasound
        1. Evaluate for Ascites (if body habitus or other confounding factors limit exam)
        2. Consider Inferior Vena Cava Ultrasound for Volume Status
    3. Consider important other diagnoses (if diagnostics and examination otherwise negative above)
      1. See Generalized Edema Below the Diaphragm
      2. See Generalized Edema Above the Diaphragm
      3. See Medication Causes of Edema
      4. Hypothyroidism
      5. Pelvic Mass
      6. Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (after 20 weeks gestation)
      7. Deep Vein Thrombosis evaluation indications
        1. Unilateral or asymmetric edema or
        2. Bilateral extremity edema and significant VTE Risk factors
          1. Cancer in last year
          2. Joint replacement
          3. Trauma
          4. Immobilization
          5. Hypercoagulability or prior Venous Thromboembolism
    4. Consider common alternative diagnoses (if diagnostics and examination otherwise negative above)
      1. Venous Insufficiency (most common)
      2. Lymphedema
        1. See Stemmer's Sign (pathognomonic)
      3. Cyclic edema
  13. Management: General
    1. Treat specific underlying cause
    2. Diuretics if indicated (see below)
      1. Avoid in venous or lymphatic insufficiency
    3. Elevate legs
    4. Limit dietary Sodium to 1500-2000 mg/daily
    5. Compression Stockings (Venous Insufficiency)
      1. Contraindicated in Peripheral Arterial Disease (consider Ankle-Brachial Index before compression stocking use)
      2. Mild edema: 20-30 mmHg
      3. Severe edema: 30-40 mmHg
  14. Management: Diuretics
    1. Precautions
      1. Avoid Diuretics in conditions where they are unlikely to offer benefit
        1. Venous Insufficiency
        2. Lymphatic insufficiency (Lymphedema)
        3. Cyclic edema
      2. Close interval follow-up (within 7-10 days) to monitor progression
      3. Monitor Serum Potassium
      4. Monitor weight loss to keep above dry weight (base weight)
    2. Diuretic indications
      1. Pulmonary edema
      2. Congestive Heart Failure
      3. Nephrotic Syndrome
      4. Cirrhosis
    3. Diuretic dosing (initiation)
      1. Furosemide 10-20 mg orally twice daily
      2. Add Spironolactone in Cirrhotic Ascites
  15. References
    1. Borhart et al in Majoewsky (2013) EM:Rap 13(7):5-6
    2. Traves (2013) Am Fam Physician 88(2): 102-110 [PubMed]

Anasarca (C0151603)

Definition (NCI) A condition that is characterized by the presence of generalized edema. Causes include congestive heart failure, liver failure, renal failure, and severe malnutrition.
Concepts Pathologic Function (T046)
MSH D004487
ICD10 R60.1
SnomedCT 206890001, 206889005, 442433009, 139247005, 158242001, 161985009, 158243006, 32951000009107, 16740003, 271808008
English EDEMA GENERALIZED, FLUID RETENTION IN TISSUES, OEDEMA GENERALISED, [D]Edema, generalized, Generalized oedema, [D]Anasarca (context-dependent category), [D]Edema, generalized (context-dependent category), [D]Anasarca, edema anasarca, edema anasarca (physical finding), anasarca, [D]Oedema, generalised, Edema generalized, Fluid retention in tissues, Oedema generalised, Oedema generalized, Anasarca (finding), fluid retention tissue, Anasarca, Oedema, generalised (finding), [D]Oedema, generalised (situation), [D]Anasarca (situation), [D]Edema, generalized (situation), Edema, generalized, Generalized edema, Oedema, generalised, Generalised oedema, Edema, generalized (finding), Anasarca (morphologic abnormality), edema; generalized, generalized; edema, generalised oedema, generalized edema, Edema;generalized, Oedema;generalised
Italian Edema generalizzato, Ritenzione di liquidi nei tessuti, Anasarca
Dutch oedeem gegeneraliseerd, anasarca, vochtretentie in weefsels, gegeneraliseerd; oedeem, oedeem; gegeneraliseerd, Gegeneraliseerd oedeem, gegeneraliseerd oedeem
French Rétention de liquide dans les tissus, Anasarque, OEDEME GENERALISE, RETENTION DE LIQUIDE DANS TISSUS, Oedème généralisé
German Oedem, generalisiert, Fluessigkeitsretention in Geweben, Anasarka, generalisiertes Oedem, FLUESSIGKEITSRETENTION GEWEBE, Generalisiertes Oedem, OEDEM GENERALISIERT, generalisierte Oedeme
Portuguese Retenção de líquidos nos tecidos, Anasarca, EDEMA GENERALIZADO, EDEMA TECIDUAL, Edema generalizado
Spanish Anasarca, Retención de líquidos en tejidos, [D]edema generalizado (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]anasarca (categoría dependiente del contexto), EDEMA GENERALIZADO, LIQUIDOS EN TEJIDOS, RETENCION, anasarca (hallazgo), [D]anasarca (situación), [D]edema generalizado (situación), [D]edema generalizado, [D]anasarca, anasarca (anomalía morfológica), anasarca, edema generalizado, edema, generalizado (hallazgo), edema, generalizado, Edema generalizado
Japanese 全身性浮腫, 組織内液貯留, ゼンシンセイフシュ, ソシキナイエキチョリュウ, 重症全身浮腫, ジュウショウゼンシンフシュ
Czech Anasarka, Retence tekutin ve tkáních, Generalizovaný edém, anasarka
Korean 전신 부종
Hungarian Anasarca, Generalizált ödéma, Folyadékretentio a szövetekben, Általánosult ödéma, Oedema, generalisált, Generalizált oedema
Norwegian Hudvannsott, Anasarka
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Fluid overload (C0546817)

Definition (CCC) Fluid retention, overload, or edema
Definition (NCI) Too much fluid in the blood.
Definition (NAN) Increased isotonic fluid retention
Definition (CSP) abnormal increase in the volume of circulating fluid (plasma) in the body.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD9 276.6
ICD10 E87.7, E87.70
SnomedCT 33024009, 234175000, 190899008, 21639008
LNC MTHU013364
English FLUID OVERLOAD, HYPERVOLAEMIA, Fluid overload NOS, Volume overload, Excess Fluid Volume, fluid overload (diagnosis), fluid overload, rndx fluid volume excess (diagnosis), rndx fluid volume excess, volume excess, volume overload, fluid excess, excess fluid volume, fluid excess volume, fluid volume excess, fluids overload, overloaded volume, excess fluid, excess fluids, hypervolaemia, Fluid overload, unspecified, Alteration in fluid volume: excess (finding), Excess fluid volume, Alteration in fluid volume: excess, Hypervolaemia (disorder), Fluid overload NOS (disorder), Hyperhydration, HYPERVOLEMIA, Fluid Volume Excess, Hypervolemia, Fluid excess, Fluid volume excess, Volume excess, Hypervolaemia, Hypervolemia (disorder), EXCESS FLUID VOLUME, hypervolemia, excess; fluid, fluid; excess, fluid; overload, overload fluid, overload; fluid, Fluid overload
Italian Ipervolemia, Sovraccarico di liquidi, Sovraccarico di volume, Iperidratazione
Japanese 血液量増加症, 水分過負荷, ケツエキリョウゾウカショウ, スイブンカフカ, 容量過負荷, ヨウリョウカフカ, スイブンカジョウ, 水分過剰
Spanish Sobrecarga de volumen, HIPERVOLEMIA, LIQUIDOS, SOBRECARGA, exceso de volumen de líquido, alteración del volumen de líquido: exceso, sobrecarga de líquidos, SAI, líquido extracelular aumentado, alteración del volumen de líquido: exceso (hallazgo), sobrecarga de líquidos, SAI (trastorno), L.E.C. aumentado, Hiperhidratación, exceso de líquidos, hipervolemia (trastorno), hipervolemia, Hipervolemia, Sobrecarga de líquido
French Surcharge en volume, HYPERVOLEMIE, SURCHARGE LIQUIDIENNE, Hyperhydratation, Hypervolémie, Surcharge liquidienne
Dutch volume overbelasting, hyperhydratatie, overbelasting; vocht, overmaat; vocht, vocht; overbelasting, vocht; overmaat, Overmaat aan vocht, hypervolemie, vochtopstapeling
Portuguese Sobrecarga de líquido, HIPERVOLEMIA, SOBRECARGA DE LIQUIDOS, Hiper-hidratação, Hipervolemia, Sobrecarga de líquidos
German Volumenueberlastung, FLUESSIGKEITSUEBERLASTUNG, Fluessigkeitsueberschuss, HYPERVOLAEMIE, Hyperhydrierung, Hypervolaemie, Ueberwaesserung
Czech Přeplnění tekutiny, Hypervolemie, Hyperhydratace
Korean 체액과부하
Hungarian Folyadék túlterhelés, Hypervolemia, Térfogat túltöltése, Hypervolaemia, Hyperhydratio
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Disorder characterized by edema (C1290849)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 118654009
English Disorder characterised by oedema, Disorder characterized by edema (disorder), Disorder characterized by edema
Spanish trastorno caracterizado por la presencia de edema (trastorno), trastorno caracterizado por la presencia de edema
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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