Mental Health Book

Sexual Development



Aka: Sleep, Sleep Stage, REM Sleep, Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep
  1. See Also
    1. Insomnia
    2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  2. Physiology
    1. Sleep Stages defined by Electroencephalogram changes
  3. Epidemiology
    1. Sleep cycles normalize after 6 months of age
    2. Average sleep per day
      1. Infants and children: 16 to 20 hours per day
      2. Young Adults: 7 to 8 hours per day
      3. Adults over age 60 years: 6.5 hours per day
  4. Stages: Light Sleep (Non-REM Sleep)
    1. Stage I of Sleep: Sleep Onset (Drowsy Phase)
      1. Lowest threshold for arousal
      2. Time spent in Stage I increases with age
        1. Accounts for more brief awakenings
        2. Accounts for fragmented sleep
    2. Stage II of Sleep: Light Sleep
  5. Stages: Deep Sleep or Delta Sleep (Non-REM Sleep)
    1. General (Stages 3 and 4)
      1. Deepest, most refreshing and restorative sleep type
      2. Diminishes with age
      3. Highest threshold for arousal
      4. Associated with diffuse dreams
        1. Dream about color or emotion
      5. Associated Conditions
        1. Night Terrors (Sleep Terrors)
        2. Sleep Walking
        3. Confusion on arousal
    2. Stage III of Sleep
    3. Stage IV of Sleep
  6. Stages: Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM Sleep)
    1. Timing
      1. REM occurs cyclically every 90 minutes of sleep
      2. Infants spend 50% of sleep time in REM Sleep
      3. Adults spend 20% of sleep time in REM Sleep
    2. Dream Characteristics
      1. Most recallable dreams during this stage
      2. Bizarre and detailed dreams during this stage
    3. Signs
      1. Suppressed voluntary motor activity ("paralyzed")
      2. Rapid eye movements
    4. Associated Sleep Conditions
      1. Nightmares and Frightening Dreams
      2. Sleep-related painful Erections
    5. Provocation of Medical Symptoms
      1. Coronary Artery Disease (Angina)
      2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Apnea)
      3. Peptic Ulcer Disease (Abdominal Pain)
      4. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (Abdominal Pain)
      5. Migraine Headache or Cluster Headache
  7. References
    1. Pagel (2000) Am Fam Physician 61(7):2037-44 [PubMed]
    2. Thiedke (2001) Am Fam Physician 63(2):277-84 [PubMed]

Sleep Stages (C0037319)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) One of 5 parts or stages of the sleep cycle based on the type of brain activity that occurs during the stage. During stages 1 to 4, a person will feel drowsy, fall asleep, and move into a deep, dreamless sleep. Stage 5 is called rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and it is during this stage that dreams occur. During several hours of normal sleep, a person will go through several sleep cycles that include REM sleep and the 4 stages of non-REM sleep (light to deep sleep).
Definition (MSH) Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Concepts Organism Function (T040)
MSH D012894
English Sleep Stages, Stage, Sleep, Stages, Sleep, sleep stages, sleep staging, sleeping stages, stages sleep, Sleep Stage, Sleep--Stages, sleep stage
Swedish Sömnstadier
Finnish Univaiheet
Polish Fazy snu
Norwegian Søvnstadier
Czech spánek - stadia, fáze spánku, stadia spánku
German Schlafstadien
Italian Stadi del sonno
Dutch Slaapfase, Slaapfasen
Portuguese Fases do Sono
French Stades du sommeil
Spanish Fases del Sueño
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Sleep, REM (C0037322)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) One of the five stages of sleep. During rapid eye movement sleep, the eyes move rapidly while closed and dreams occur. Rapid eye movement sleep is the lightest stage of sleep, during which a person may wake easily. During several hours of normal sleep, a person will go through several sleep cycles that include rapid eye movement sleep and the 4 stages of non-rapid eye movement (light to deep sleep).
Definition (MSH) A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Definition (CSP) stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG; usually associated with dreaming.
Concepts Mental Process (T041)
MSH D012895
SnomedCT 89129007
English Paradoxical Sleep, Rhombencephalic Sleep, Sleep, REM, Sleep, Rhombencephalic, Sleep, Paradoxical, Fast Wave Sleep, Fast-Wave Sleep, Sleep, Fast Wave, Sleep, Fast-Wave, Rapid eye movement sleep, function, dreaming sleep, fast wave sleep, paradoxical sleep, active eye movement sleep, desynchronized sleep, active sleep, dream sleep, dreams sleep, sleep rem, sleep dreaming, sleep dream, rem sleep, rem sleeping, REM Sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, Active sleep, Desynchronized sleep, Dreaming sleep, Fast wave sleep, Paradoxical sleep, REM sleep, Rapid eye movement sleep, Desynchronised sleep, Rapid eye movement sleep, function (observable entity), Rapid eye movement sleep (function), Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
German Desynchronisierter Schlaf, Fast-Wave-Sleep, Paradoxer Schlaf, REM-Schlaf, Schlaf, REM-, Schlaf, desynchronisierter, Schlaf, paradoxer, Traumschlaf, Rhombenzephaler Schlaf, Schlaf, rhombenzephaler
Swedish Sömn, REM
Czech spánek REM
Finnish Vilkeuni
French Sommeil à mouvements oculaires rapides, Phases paradoxales du sommeil, Phase rhombencéphalique du sommeil, Phase de mouvements oculaires, Sommeil paradoxal, Stade PMO
Japanese 菱脳性睡眠, 睡眠-レム, 逆説睡眠, 急速眼球運動, 睡眠-賦活, 睡眠-REM, パラ睡眠, 睡眠-速波, 賦活睡眠, 速波睡眠, REM睡眠, レム睡眠
Spanish Sueño Paradojal, sueño MOR, sueño REM, sueño activo, sueño de movimientos oculares rápidos (entidad observable), sueño de movimientos oculares rápidos (función), sueño de movimientos oculares rápidos, sueño de onda rápida, sueño desincronizado, sueño paradójico, Sueño REM, Sueño Rombencefálico, Sueño de Onda Rápida
Italian Sonno ad onda veloce, Sonno paradosso, Sonno rombencefalico, Sonno paradossale, Sonno REM
Polish Sen paradoksalny, Sen szybki
Norwegian REM-søvn
Dutch Paradoxale slaap, Rhombencefale slaap, Slaap, REM-, Slaap, snellegolf-, Snellegolfslaap
Portuguese Sono de Ondas Rápidas, Sono Paradoxal, Sono REM, Sono Rombencefálico
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Sleep Disorders (C0851578)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Is it hard for you to fall asleep or stay asleep through the night? Do you wake up feeling tired or feel very sleepy during the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are

  • Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep
  • Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep
  • Restless legs syndrome - a tingling or prickly sensation in the legs
  • Narcolepsy - daytime "sleep attacks"

Nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, head banging, wetting the bed and grinding your teeth are kinds of sleep problems called parasomnias. There are treatments for most sleep disorders. Sometimes just having regular sleep habits can help.

Definition (NCI) A change from the patient's baseline sleeping pattern, either an increase or a decrease in the number of hours slept. This can also refer to alterations in the stages of sleep.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A disturbance of normal sleep patterns. There are a number of sleep disorders that range from trouble falling asleep, to nightmares, sleepwalking, and sleep apnea (problems with breathing that cause loud snoring). Poor sleep may also be caused by diseases such as heart disease, lung disease, or nerve disorders.
Definition (MSH) Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Definition (CSP) conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors; divided into three major categories: dyssomnias (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), parasomnias (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D012893
ICD10 G47, G47.9
SnomedCT 206757006, 268775007, 194436004, 154927001, 39898005
English SLEEP DISORDER, Sleep problem, Sleep disorder, unspecified, Sleep dysfunction NOS, [D]Sleep dysfunction NOS (context-dependent category), [D]Sleep dysfunction NOS, SLEEP DIS, Sleep-wake disorder, Sleep disorders and disturbances, Disorder sleep, Sleep disorder (NOS), Sleep disorder NOS, Sleep Disorders [Disease/Finding], Disorder;sleep, Problem;sleep, Sleep disorders, sleep disorder (diagnosis), sleep disorder, Sleep-wake disorder (disorder), [D]Sleep dysfunction NOS (situation), DISTURBANCES, SLEEP, parasomnia, SLEEP DISTURBANCES, Sleep disorder, Sleep disorder (disorder), sleep disorders, disorders, sleep, Sleep disorder, NOS, Sleep Disorders, Sleep Disorder, sleep problem
German SCHLAFSTOERUNGEN, Erkrankungen und Stoerungen des Schlafes, Schlafproblem, Schlafstoerung (NNB), Schlafstoerung NNB, Schlafstoerung, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Schlafstoerungen, Schlafstoerung, Schlafstörungen
Italian Anomalie e disturbi del sonno, Disturbo del sonno, Disturbo del sonno NAS, Problema di sonno, Disturbo del sonno (NAS), Disturbi del sonno
Dutch stoornis slaap, slaapprobleem, slaapstoornis (NAO), slaapstoornis NAO, Slaapstoornis, niet gespecificeerd, slaapstoornissen en -afwijkingen, slaapstoornis, Slaapstoornis, Slaapstoornissen, Stoornis, slaap-, Stoornissen, slaap-
French Trouble du sommeil SAI, TROUBLE DU SOMMEIL, Trouble du sommeil, Troubles et anomalies du sommeil, Troubles du sommeil
Portuguese Perturbação do sono NE, Problema com o sono, PERTURBACAO DO SONO, Distúrbios do Sono, Perturbação do sono, Perturbações e alterações do sono, Transtornos do Sono
Spanish Problema del sueño, Trastorno del sueño (NEOM), Trastorno del sueño NEOM, [D]disfunción del sueño, SAI (categoría dependiente del contexto), SUENO, TRASTORNO, [D]disfunción del sueño, SAI (situación), [D]disfunción del sueño, SAI, trastorno del sueño (trastorno), trastorno del sueño, Trastorno del sueño, Trastornos y alteraciones del sueño, Trastornos del Sueño
Japanese 睡眠障害NOS, 睡眠障害(NOS), スイミンショウガイNOS, スイミンショウガイ, 睡眠障害
Swedish Sömnstörningar
Finnish Unihäiriöt
Czech Porucha spánku NOS, Porucha spánku, Porucha spánku (NOS), Poruchy a narušení spánku, Problém se spánkem, poruchy spánku, spánek - poruchy
Korean 수면 장애, 상세불명의 수면 장애
Polish Zaburzenia snu
Hungarian Alvás betegségek és zavarok, Alvás probléma, Alvászavar (k.m.n.), Alvászavar k.m.n., Alvászavar
Norwegian Ikke-organiske søvnforstyrrelser, Dyssomnier, Søvnvansker, Søvnforstyrrelser
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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