Mental Health Book

Hallucinogen Use Disorders



Drug Withdrawal

Aka: Drug Withdrawal, Substance Withdrawal, Chemical Withdrawal, Medication Withdrawal
  1. See Also
    1. Chemical Dependency
    2. Alcohol Withdrawal
    3. Opioid Withdrawal
    4. Benzodiazepine Withdrawal
    5. Barbiturate withdrawal
    6. GHB Withdrawal
    7. Antidepressant Withdrawal
    8. Intrathecal Baclofen Withdrawal
  2. Symptoms: General
    1. Agitation
    2. Anxiety
    3. Diaphoresis
    4. Tachycardia
    5. Tremor
    6. Malaise
    7. Nausea and Vomiting
    8. Diarrhea
    9. Dysphoria or depressed mood
    10. Insomnia
  3. Signs: Specific per agent
    1. Alcohol Withdrawal signs
      1. Symptoms mild for first 24 hours and severe by 72 hours (overall lasting 1-2 weeks)
      2. Hallucinations
      3. Tremors
      4. Seizures
    2. Opioid Withdrawal signs
      1. Symptoms peak in 72-96 hours and last 2 weeks for Methadone
      2. Symptoms peak in 36-72 hours and last 7-10 days for Heroin
      3. Diarrhea
      4. Mydriasis
      5. Cramps
    3. Benzodiazepines or Barbiturate withdrawal signs
      1. Symptoms peak in 5-9 days (overall lasting 10-14 days); Variable based on specific agent
      2. Seizures
      3. Agitation
    4. Stimulant withdrawal
      1. Symptoms peak in 2-4 days (and depressed mood symptoms may persist for weeks)
      2. Depressed mood
    5. Antihypertensive withdrawal signs
      1. Hypertension
      2. Tachycardia
  4. Causes: Agents with severe withdrawal
    1. Drugs of Abuse
      1. Alcohol Withdrawal
      2. Opioid Withdrawal
      3. Benzodiazepine Withdrawal
      4. Barbiturate withdrawal
      5. GHB Withdrawal
    2. Prescription medications
      1. Intrathecal Baclofen Withdrawal
      2. Venlafaxine Withdrawal
      3. Clonidine Withdrawal
  5. Causes: Prescription medications with withdrawal potential
    1. Amphetamine Withdrawal
      1. Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)
      2. Amphetamine-Dextroamphetamine (Adderall)
      3. Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
    2. Anticonvulsant Withdrawal
      1. Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
      2. Lamotrigine (Lamictal)
      3. Topiramate (Topamax)
    3. Antidepressant Withdrawal
      1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)
      2. Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRI, especially Venlafaxine)
      3. Tricyclic Antidepressants
    4. Antipsychotic withdrawal
      1. Clozapine (Clozaril)
      2. Fluphenazine (Prolixin)
      3. Olanzapine (Zyprexa)
      4. Haloperidol (Haldol)
      5. Risperidone (Risperdal)
      6. Ziprasidone (Geodon)
    5. Barbiturate withdrawal
      1. Phenobarbital
    6. Beta Blocker Withdrawal
      1. Carvedilol (Coreg)
      2. Metoprolol (Toprol, Lopressor)
      3. Propranolol (Inderal)
    7. Benzodiazepine Withdrawal
      1. Alprazolam (Xanax)
      2. Lorazepam (Ativan)
      3. Diazepam (Valium)
      4. Temazepam (Restoril)
    8. Dopamine Agonist withdrawal
      1. Amantadine
      2. Pramipexole (Mirapex)
      3. Ropinirole (Requip)
    9. Hypnotic withdrawal
      1. Eszopiclone (Lunesta)
      2. Zaleplon (Sonata)
      3. Zolpidem (Ambien)
    10. Opioid Withdrawal
      1. Hydrocodone
      2. Methadone
      3. Morphine
      4. Oxycodone
      5. Tramadol
    11. Corticosteroid withdrawal
      1. Dexamethasone
      2. Methylprednisolone
      3. Prednisone
  6. References
    1. Mishler and Lovecchio (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(11): 15-20

Drug withdrawal syndrome (C0152128)

Definition (PSY) Processes and symptomatic effects resulting from abstinence from a chemical agent or medication. Used for human or animal populations.
Definition (CSP) physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation; the concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD9 292.0
SnomedCT 363101005, 154856000, 18159001
English DRUG WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME, drugs withdrawal, drug withdrawals, Withdrawal;drug, drug withdrawal syndrome, drug withdrawal, Drug withdrawal syndrome (disorder), unspecified substance withdrawal drug, Drug withdrawal (diagnosis), Drug withdrawal (disorder), Drug withdrawal, Drug withdrawal syndrome, NOS, Drug Withdrawal, Drug Withdrawal Effects, Withdrawal (Drug), Drug abstinence syndrome or symptoms, Drug withdrawal syndrome or symptoms, Drug withdrawal syndrome
Italian Sindrome da astinenza da droghe
Japanese 薬剤離脱症候群, ヤクザイリダツショウコウグン
Spanish síndrome de abstinencia de drogas, SINDROME DE RETIRADA A FARMACOS, síndrome de abstinencia de una droga, síndrome de abstinencia de una droga (trastorno), abstinencia de drogas (trastorno), abstinencia de drogas, Síndrome de supresión de fármacos
German ARZNEIMITTEL ENTZUGSSYNDROM, Arzneimittelentzugssyndrom
Portuguese SINDROME DE ABSTINENCIA A DROGA, Síndrome de privação de fármacos
French SYNDROME DE SEVRAGE, Syndrome de sevrage médicamenteux
Czech Syndrom z vysazení léku
Hungarian Gyógyszer elvonási syndroma
Dutch geneesmiddelontwenningsverschijnselen-syndroom
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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