Pharmacology Book


Nutrition in Toddlers

Aka: Nutrition in Toddlers
  1. Component: Fluids
    1. Milk
      1. Advantages
        1. High in protein, calcium, Vitamin A, Vitamin D
      2. Disadvantages
        1. High in fat, low in iron
      3. Recommendations for age 12-24 months
        1. Whole milk 2-3 servings (8 ounces each) per day
        2. Milk 2% does not delay growth, but not recommended
          1. Wosje (2001) J Am Diet Assoc 101:53-6 [PubMed]
    2. Water
      1. May be used between milk servings
      2. Assumes a minimum of 16 ounces of milk daily
    3. Juice
      1. Limit to 4-6 ounces 100% juice with no added sugar
      2. Whole fruits and vegetables are preferred instead
  2. Component: Fat and Cholesterol
    1. Do not restrict fat or Cholesterol <2 years old
    2. Fat, Cholesterol are critical for growth, development
      1. Important components for brain maturation
      2. Fat restriction may impede growth if <20% of calories
      3. Fat soluble Vitamin Deficiency risk if fat resricted
    3. Recommendations
      1. Total daily calories from fat: 30%
      2. Polyunsaturated fats are preferred
      3. Avoid trans-Fatty Acids and saturate fats
  3. Components: Vitamins and Supplements
    1. Routine supplements not recommended in healthy children
      1. Varied diet contains all necessary Vitamins, minerals
      2. Supplements are deficient in calcium and zinc
      3. Vitamins are Overdose/poison risk (Look like candy)
    2. Recommendations for specific supplement indications
      1. Vitamin D 200 IU daily indications (Rickets risk)
        1. Toddler milk intake <16 ounces daily and
        2. No regular sunlight exposure
      2. General supplement indications (for micronutrients)
        1. Family with low-income
        2. Cystic Fibrosis or other chronic disease state
        3. Vegetarians
  4. References
    1. Nicklas (2004) J Am Diet Assoc 104:660-77 [PubMed]

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