Pharmacology Book



Aka: Zinc
  1. See Also
    1. Zinc Deficiency
  2. Indications
    1. Zinc Deficiency
    2. Wilson Disease
      1. Brewer (1998) J Lab Clin Med 132(4): 264-78 [PubMed]
  3. Physiology
    1. Absorbed in Small Intestine (jejunum)
    2. Functions
      1. Cofactor for polymerases and proteases
        1. Protein Synthesis
        2. Wound Repair
        3. Cell regeneration
      2. Cofactor for thymulin
        1. T-Cell maturation related Hormone
      3. Antioxidant
        1. Reduces Cytokine expression (associated with organ failure and Sepsis)
  4. Precautions
    1. Avoid intranasal zinc (risk of permanent Loss of Smell)
  5. Adverse Effects: Supplementation
    1. Gastrointestinal effects
      1. Metallic Taste
      2. Nausea or Vomiting
      3. Abdominal cramping
      4. Diarrhea
    2. Genitourinary effects
      1. Urinary Tract Infection
      2. Nephrolithiasis
    3. Miscellaneous effects
      1. Decreased HDL Cholesterol
  6. Contraindications: Supplementation (aside from Zinc Deficiency)
    1. Pregnancy and Lactation in excess of RDA (unless significant deficiency)
    2. Copper deficiency
      1. High zinc levels inhibit copper absorption (competitively inhibits cation transporter)
  7. Preparations: Dietary Zinc Sources
    1. Human Breast Milk
    2. Meats
    3. Shellfish
    4. Chickpeas
    5. Cashews
    6. Pumpkin seeds
  8. Preparations: Medications
    1. Zinc Acetate: 25 mg (7.5 mg elemental zinc), 50 mg (15 mg elemental zinc)
    2. Zinc Gluconate: 50 mg (7 mg elemental zinc), 100 mg (14 mg elemental zinc)
    3. Zinc Sulfate: 110 mg (25 mg elemental zinc), 220 mg (50 mg elemental zinc)
    4. Zinc Oxide: 100 mg (80 mg elemental zinc)
  9. Dosing: Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
    1. See Zinc Deficiency for dosing
    2. Age 0-6 months: 2 mg elemental zinc
    3. Age 7-36 months: 3 mg elemental zinc
    4. Age 4-8: 5 mg elemental zinc
    5. Age 9-13: 8 mg elemental zinc
    6. Age 14 and older: 11 mg (men) or 8 mg (women) elemental zinc
    7. Pregnancy and Lactation: 11-12 mg elemental zinc
  10. Efficacy: Supplementation Possible Benefits (Aside from Zinc Deficiency)
    1. Pediatric Diarrhea
      1. Zinc 5-20 mg orally daily
      2. Lukacik (2008) Pediatrics 121(2): 326-36 [PubMed]
    2. Macular Degeneration (protection from oxidative stress)
      1. Grahn (2001) J Am Coll Nutr 20:106-18 [PubMed]
    3. Pediatric Pneumonia
      1. Zinc supplementation associated with decreased mortality, shorter hospitalizations and fewer treatment failures
      2. Greatest benefit appears to be in developing countries where Zinc Deficiency occurs frequently (30% of world population)
      3. Basnet (2012) Pediatrics 129(4): 701-8 [PubMed]
      4. Srinivasan (2012) BMC Med 10: 14 [PubMed]
    4. Pregnancy
      1. Zinc (25 mg) in Prenatal Vitamins
      2. Effects
        1. Increased birth weight and Head Circumference
        2. Resulted in birth at later Gestational age
        3. Resulted in shorter hospital stay
        4. Greatest benefit in thin women
      3. Goldenberg (1995) JAMA 274:463-8 [PubMed]
  11. Efficacy: Supplementation Disproven Benefits
    1. Wound Healing
      1. Agren (2006) Wound Repair Regen 14(5): 526-35 [PubMed]
    2. Upper Respiratory Infection
      1. No consistent benefit with zinc preparations
      2. Turner (2000) Clin Infect Dis 31:1202-8 [PubMed]
    3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (unless significant Zinc Deficiency)
      1. Bobat (2005) Lancet 366(9500): 1862-7 [PubMed]
    4. Acne Vulgaris
      1. Dreno (2001) Dermatology 203(2): 135-40 [PubMed]
  12. Drug Interactions: Supplementation
    1. Copper absorption
      1. High zinc levels inhibit copper absorption (competitively inhibits cation transporter)
    2. Absorption decreased by zinc
      1. Penicillamine
      2. Tetracyclines
      3. Quinolones
    3. Interfere with zinc absorption (avoid within 2 hours of zinc dose)
      1. Iron supplements
      2. Grains or legumes (phytates)
  13. References
    1. Maverakis (2007) J Am Acad Dermatol 56(1): 116-24 [PubMed]
    2. Snow (2022) Am Fam Physician 105(3): 319-20 [PubMed]
Medication Costs
zinc (on 5/17/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Pharmacy Drug pricing)
ZINC OXIDE 20% OINTMENT Generic OTC $0.06 per gram
FPNotebook does not benefit financially from showing this medication data or their pharmacy links. This information is provided only to help medical providers and their patients see relative costs. Insurance plans negotiate lower medication prices with suppliers. Prices shown here are out of pocket, non-negotiated rates. See Needy Meds for financial assistance information.

Zinc (C0043481)

Definition (NCI) An element with atomic symbol Zn, atomic number 30, and atomic weight 65.39.
Definition (CSP) metallic trace element, atomic symbol Zn, atomic number 30; necessary in the diet, forms an essential part of many enzymes, and plays an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division.
Definition (MSH) A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Concepts Element, Ion, or Isotope (T196) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D015032
SnomedCT 350591008, 46856009, 387254007, 86739005
LNC LP14795-6, MTHU001006
English Zinc, Zn, zinc (medication), mineral supplements zinc, Zinc [Chemical/Ingredient], ZINC, zinc preparation, zn, Zn element, zinc, Zinc preparation (substance), Zinc preparation, Zinc product, Zn - Zinc, Zinc (substance), Zinc product (product), Zinc preparation, NOS, Zinc, NOS, Zinc product (substance)
Swedish Zink
Czech zinek
Finnish Sinkki
Spanish zinc (producto), producto con cinc (producto), zinc, producto con zinc, Zinc, producto con cinc, preparado de zinc, preparado de cinc, preparado de cinc (sustancia), Cinc, cinc (sustancia), cinc, producto (producto), cinc, producto (sustancia), cinc, producto, cinc, zinc, producto
Croatian CINK
Latvian Cinks
Polish Cynk
Norwegian Sink
French Zinc
German Zink
Italian Zinco
Portuguese Zinco
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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