Pharmacology Book



Aka: Echinacea
  1. Epidemiology
    1. Use is popular in Germany
  2. Indications (Purported benefits)
    1. Systemic use
      1. Immunostimulant for preventing and treating infection
    2. Topical use
      1. Stings and bites
      2. Wounds including Burn Injury
      3. Inflammation
  3. Efficacy
    1. Recent studies suggest no benefit in Common Cold
      1. Barrett (2002) Ann Intern Med 137:939-46 [PubMed]
      2. Yale (2004) Arch Intern Med 164:1237-41 [PubMed]
    2. Previously thought to be effective in Common Cold
      1. Decreases Common Cold symptom duration
      2. May have slight benefit in preventing the Common Cold
  4. Mechanism
    1. Increases Phagocytosis
    2. Increases lymphocytic activity
    3. Increases activity against tumor cells
    4. No known bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties
  5. Dosing
    1. Echinacea 800 mg per day
  6. Contraindications
    1. Daisy Allergy
    2. Progressive autoimmune or systemic disease
      1. Acquired Immune Deficiency (AIDS)
      2. Tuberculosis
      3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
      4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
      5. Multiple Sclerosis
  7. Precautions
    1. Some recommend limiting to under 8 successive weeks
  8. Adverse Effects
    1. Immunosuppression may occur with prolonged use
      1. Opportunistic infections
      2. Impaired Wound Healing
    2. Hepatotoxicity risk with prolonged use
  9. Drug Interactions
    1. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4
      1. May affect drug levels of these P450 metabolized agents, even with shortterm Echinacea use
  10. References
    1. Shaughnessy (1997) Fam Practice Recert 19(10):53-6
    2. Ang-Lee (2001) JAMA 286:208-16 [PubMed]
    3. Asher (2017) Am Fam Physician 96(2): 101-7 [PubMed]
    4. Zink (1998) Am Fam Physician 58(5): 1133-40 [PubMed]

Echinacea Preparation (C0752270)

Definition (NCI) An over-the-counter herbal remedy, extracted from North American herb purple coneflower belonging to the Family Asteraceae, with potential immunostimulating and anti-inflammatory activities. Echinacea extract might be helpful to boost the body's immune system and to help fight infections, especially those of the upper respiratory tract. This herbal remedy seems to increase the growth and activity of immune cells, including white blood cells, macrophages and natural killer cells, and to stimulate phagocytosis. Furthermore, echinacoside, one of the components in Echinacea extract, has been shown to inhibit hyaluronidase, whose action increases tissue permeability, thereby Echinacea extract may promote tissue growth for wound healing by preventing bacteria spreading into healthy cells.
Concepts Organic Chemical (T109) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
SnomedCT 412177003, 412179000
English Echinacea Extract, Echinacea, echinacea (medication), echinacea extract, echinacea, ECHINACEA, ECHINACEA, UNSPECIFIED, Echinacea, Unspecified, echinacea, unspecified, Echinacea Preparation, Echinacea extract (substance), Echinacea extract, Echinacea preparation (product), Echinacea preparation
Spanish preparación con Echinacea (producto), Echinacea (producto), Echinacea, preparación con Echinacea, extracto de Echinacea (sustancia), extracto de Echinacea
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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