Orthopedics Book


Genu Varum

Aka: Genu Varum, Bowed legs
  1. Pathophysiology
    1. Normal finding in the newborn
    2. Physiologic bowing of the lower extremities
      1. External rotation of femur
      2. Internal rotation of tibia
  2. Symptoms
    1. Noted first at walking age
  3. Signs
    1. Knees bow apart
    2. Typically symmetric and bilateral
    3. Measuring degree of Genu Varum
      1. Child stands with medial malleoli touching
      2. Measure distance between medial femoral condyles
  4. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Rickets
    2. Skeletal dysplasia
    3. Blount's disease
      1. Obesity-related abnormal growth of medial proximal tibial physis
    4. Tibial Bowing
      1. Anterolateral bowing
        1. Neurofibromatosis association
      2. Posteromedial bowing
        1. In utero calcaneovalgus foot (will correct)
    5. High impact sports
      1. May generate Genu Varum in teens
  5. Management
    1. No management (bracing, connective bars, Orthotics) needed in most cases
    2. Surgical osteotomy may be considered in severe, non-resolving cases
  6. Course
    1. Persistence after age 2 years is atypical
    2. Often transitions to Genu Valgum (Knock-Knees)
      1. Occurs between ages 18 months to 3 years
      2. Corrects spontaneously by ages 6 to 10 years
  7. Complications
    1. Premature Osteoarthritis
  8. References
    1. Rerucha (2017) Am Fam Physician 96(4): 226-33 [PubMed]

Genu varum (C0544755)

Definition (MSH) An outward slant of the thigh in which the knees are wide apart and the ankles close together. Genu varum can develop due to skeletal and joint dysplasia (e.g., OSTEOARTHRITIS; Blount's disease); and malnutrition (e.g., RICKETS; FLUORIDE POISONING).
Definition (MSHCZE) Lat. abnormální zakřivení dolních končetin do „O" (lat. varus křivý). (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI) A deformity of the legs characterized by medial angulation, resulting in a bow appearance.
Concepts Anatomical Abnormality (T190)
MSH D056305
ICD10 M21.16
SnomedCT 268352002, 249782009, 157008000, 299331007
English Bowing of leg, genu varum (physical finding), genu varum, Genu Varum, bowing of lower leg (physical finding), bowing of lower leg, Bowed Legs, Bow leg, Genu Varum [Disease/Finding], Bow Leg, Bow Legs, Genu Varus, Legs, Bow, Leg, Bow, bandy legs, bowing legs, bowlegs, bow legged, bandy leg, bow legs, bow leg, bandy legged, bowed leg, bowing of leg, bowleg, genu varus, bowed legs, Bowing of legs, Bowed legs, Bowing of lower extremities, Bowleg, Bowing of the lower extremities, Bowing of the legs, Bowing of leg (finding), Legs bowed, Bandy legged, Bow legged, Bow legs, Knee joint - varus deformity, Genu varus, Knee joint - varus deformity (finding), genu; varum, varum; genu, Genu varum
Spanish Genu varus, Genu Varo, Piernas arqueadas, arqueamiento de la pierna, arqueamiento de la pierna (hallazgo), Rodillas Arqueadas, articulación de la rodilla - deformidad en varo (hallazgo), articulación de la rodilla - deformidad en varo
French Genu varum, Genoux arqués, Genoux varums, Genou varum, Genu Varum, Genou arqué, Jambes arquées
Dutch genu varum, O-benen, genu; varum, varum; genu
German Genu varum, O-Beine, Genu Varum
Portuguese Género de varismo, Genu Varum, Pernas arqueadas, Genu Varo, Pernas Cambotas, Geno Varo, Joelho Varo
Czech Genu varum, nohy do O, genua vara, Nohy do O
Italian Genu varum, Ginocchio varo, Gambe arcuate
Swedish Hjulbenhet
Japanese Oキャク, 内反膝, ナイハンシツ, O脚
Polish Kolano pałąkowate, Kolano szpotawe
Hungarian Görbe lábak, Genu varum
Norwegian Hjulbeint, Genu varum, Hjulbent
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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