Orthopedics Book

Cardiovascular Medicine

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Adductor Strain

Aka: Adductor Strain, Adductor Tendinitis, Groin Pull
  1. See also
    1. Hip Pain
    2. Hip Avulsion Fracture
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Most common musculoskeletal cause of Groin Pain in sports
    2. High Incidence in soccer, hockey and track
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. Muscle stretched or overloaded beyond normal range
      1. Kicking
      2. Directional changes
      3. Sprinting
      4. Jumping
    2. Strain of adductor muscles of the hip
      1. Common muscles involved
        1. Adductor longus muscle
        2. Gracilis muscle
      2. Other muscles less frequently involved
        1. Adductor magnus muscle
        2. Adductor brevis muscle
        3. Iliopsoas muscle
        4. Rectus femoris muscle
        5. Sartorius muscle
  4. History
    1. See Hip Pain
  5. Symptoms
    1. Acute proximal muscle pain over medial thigh
    2. Pain and stiffness in groin worse after Exercise
    3. Radiation of pain
      1. Along course of medial thigh
      2. Rectus abdominis
  6. Exam
    1. See Hip Exam
  7. Signs
    1. Local swelling and Bruising may be seen
    2. Focal tenderness over adductor muscles
    3. Provocative maneuvers on adduction against resistance
      1. See Hip Adduction Test
  8. Differential Diagnosis
    1. See Groin Injuries in Athletes
    2. See Hip Pain Causes
    3. Sports Hernia
    4. Osteitis Pubis
  9. Radiology for refractory cases
    1. MRI confirms muscle and Tendon Injury
    2. Ultrasound identifies muscle and tendon tears
  10. Management: Approach
    1. Determine biomechanical forces predisposing to injury
      1. Foot and lower leg malalignment
      2. Leg Length Discrepancy
      3. Muscular imbalance
      4. Gait Abnormality
    2. Identify tear location
      1. Acute tear at musculotendinous junction
        1. Aggressive rehabilitation program
      2. Acute partial tear of tendon insertion at pubic bone
        1. Requires period of rest before physical therapy
    3. Determine Chronicity of Injury
      1. See management strategies below
  11. Management: Acute
    1. Rest from provocative activities for 10 to 14 days
      1. Longer rest needed for tear at tendon insertion
    2. Physical Therapy
      1. Initial goals
        1. Restore range of motion
        2. Prevent atrophy
      2. Next goals
        1. Regain strength (return to sport when 70% regained)
        2. Regain flexibility and endurance
    3. RICE-M
      1. Cold therapy initially
      2. Heat therapy may be used chronically after 72 hours
      3. Compression Shorts or hip spica wrap
    4. NSAIDs for first 7 to 10 days
    5. Avoid local Ultrasound
      1. Risk of bleeding
      2. Risk of mutagenesis due to proximity to genitalia
    6. Cross-training with other aerobic Exercise
  12. Management: Chronic
    1. Stretching Program
    2. Low intensity Isotonic Exercise
    3. Consider active training Exercise program
    4. Consider surgical tenotomy
  13. Course: Period of rehabilitation to return to sport
    1. Acute strains: 4-8 weeks until return to sport
    2. Chronic strains: up to 6 months
  14. References
    1. Schleihauf (2019) Crit Dec Emerg Med 33(5): 19-28
    2. Akermark (1992) Am J Sports Med 20:640-3 [PubMed]
    3. Holmich (1999) Lancet 353:439-43 [PubMed]
    4. Morelli (2001) Am Fam Physician 64(8):1405-14 [PubMed]

Adductor tendinitis (C0410074)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 202893001, 202863007
English adductor tendinitis, adductor tendonitis, tendinitis adductor, Adductor tendonitis, Adductor tendinitis, Tendonitis adductor, Adductor tendinitis (disorder)
Spanish tendinitis de aductor (trastorno), tendinitis de aductor
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Adductor strain (C0856496)

Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
Dutch adductorverrekking
French Foulure du muscle adducteur
German Adduktorenzerrung
Italian Strappo agli adduttori
Portuguese Distensão de adutor
Spanish Distensión de aductor
Czech Natažení, namožení adduktoru
English Adductor strain, adductor strains, adductor strain
Japanese 内転筋肉離れ, ナイテンキンニクバナレ
Hungarian Adductor húzódása
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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