Orthopedics Book



Waddell's Test

Aka: Waddell's Test, Waddells Test
  1. Indications
    1. Low Back Pain Evaluation
  2. Criteria
    1. Superficial non-anatomic tenderness
    2. Overreaction
    3. Pain on simulated maneuvers
      1. Pain on axial loading of skull
      2. Pain on passive rotation of Shoulders and Pelvis
    4. Straight Leg Raise testing discrepancy
      1. Sitting exam and supine exam are not consistent
      2. Sitting test performed while distracting patient
    5. Non-physiologic examination
      1. Non-dermatomal sensory loss
      2. Cogwheel or give-way weakness
  3. Interpretation
    1. Positive if 3 or more criteria positive
    2. Positive test implies psychogenic back pain
  4. References
    1. Waddell (1980) Spine 5:117-25 [PubMed]

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