Orthopedics Book


Tibia Stress Fracture

Aka: Tibia Stress Fracture, Tibial Stress Fracture, Dreaded Black Line
  1. See Also
    1. Stress Fracture
    2. Running Injury
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Most common Stress Fracture
      1. Accounts for >50% of Stress Fractures
    2. Common overuse injury in runners and jumpers
    3. Mid-tibial shaft Stress Fractures
      1. Occur in dancers
      2. Occur in jumping athletes
  3. Risk Factors
    1. Female Athlete Triad
  4. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Shin Splints
    2. Exertional Compartment Syndrome
  5. Symptoms and signs suggestive of Tibial Stress Fracture
    1. Nocturnal pain
    2. Extremely painful focal area of tibia
    3. Provocative maneuvers
      1. Pain on application of vibrating tuning fork
      2. Pain elicited on heel thump or "Hop Test"
      3. Pain with local Ultrasound at 2.5 to 3 W/cm2
        1. Not recommended currently for initial diagnosis
        2. Boam (1996) J Am Board Fam Pract 9:414-7 [PubMed]
    4. Common locations of Stress Fracture
      1. Children: Anterior proximal one third of tibia
      2. Adults: Junction of middle and distal third of tibia
  6. Diagnostics
    1. XRay with cone down view
      1. Horizontal lucency (Dreaded Black Line)
        1. Transverse Fracture through entire anterior shaft
        2. Seen more often in jumping sports
        3. Higher likelihood of nonunion
    2. Triple phase bone scan
      1. Focal hot spot at point of maximal tenderness
    3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Tibia
  7. Management
    1. See Stress Fracture
    2. Activity
      1. Avoid Running for 6-8 weeks
      2. May weight bear unless painful
      3. Slow, graded return to activity
      4. Return to sport may be as long as 3-10 months
        1. Robertson (2015) Br Med Bull 114(1):95-111 [PubMed]
    3. Other measures
      1. Consider Aircast Splinting
      2. Cast mid-shaft Fractures until pain-free
      3. Surgical repair indicated for delayed healing >6 months
  8. Prognosis
    1. Anterior Fracture with more non-union than anteromedial
  9. References
    1. Arnold (2018) Am Fam Physician 97(8): 510-6 [PubMed]

Stress fracture of tibia (C2711399)

Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
SnomedCT 442205007
English Stress fracture of tibia (disorder), Stress fracture of tibia
Spanish fractura por sobrecarga de tibia, fractura por sobrecarga de tibia (trastorno)
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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