Orthopedics Book

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Posterior Tibial Tendinopathy

Aka: Posterior Tibial Tendinopathy, Posterior Tibial Tendonitis, Posterior Tibial Tendinitis, Tibialis Posterior Tenosynovitis
  1. See Also
    1. Rigid Flatfoot
  2. Physiology
    1. Images
      1. ankleMedialAndLateral.jpg
    2. Posterior Tibial Tendon function
      1. Foot inversion and plantar flexion
      2. Medial longitudinal arch stabilization
      3. Important functionality with walking
        1. Foot stabilization while standing
        2. Absorbs shock during heel strike
        3. Provides force on toe off and heel lift
  3. Epidemiology
    1. Gender predominance in women (esp. if Overweight)
    2. Typically over age 40 years
  4. Risk Factors
    1. Decreased ankle perfusion
    2. Obesity
    3. Diabetes Mellitus
    4. Collagen vascular disease
    5. Corticosteroids
    6. Overuse
    7. Over-pronator
  5. Causes
    1. Typically, no recollection of acute injury
    2. Twisting foot
    3. Stepping in hole
    4. Slipping from curb
  6. Symptoms
    1. Years of pregressive pain along the lateral tarsal region
  7. Signs
    1. Observation
      1. Flat foot deformity (pes planovalgus deformity)
      2. Too Many Toes Sign (when viewing ankle and foot from behind)
        1. Only the 5th toe and one half of the fourth toe should be visible
        2. Positive test when the third toe is visible (not hidden by the lateral malleolus)
    2. Palpation
      1. Pain and swelling posterior to medial malleolus over posterior tibial tendon
      2. Tendon insertion is on the navicular tuberosity
    3. Provocative factors
      1. Weight bearing
      2. Pain or weakness on resisted inversion of the foot when plantar flexed
      3. Medial ankle instability (severe cases where the deltoid ligament is stretched)
    4. Specific testing
      1. Heel varus is absent when standing on tiptoe
      2. Pain with single-leg toe raise and unable to complete 10
      3. Plantar flexion ability lost (peroneal tendon rupture)
  8. Evaluation: Stages of Posterior Tibial Tendinopathy (Johnson and Strom Classification)
    1. Stage 1
      1. Pain and swelling of posterior tibial tendon (posteromedial ankle) radiating to arch of foot
      2. No foot deformity
      3. Patient can perform single-leg heel raise
    2. Stage 2
      1. Pain and swelling of posterior tibial tendon, worse with weight bearing
      2. Patient cannot perform single-leg heel raise
      3. Flexible subtalar joint
      4. Pes Planus and loss of medial longitudinal arch
      5. Midfoot adduction
    3. Stage 3
      1. Stage 2 tenderness at posterior tibial tendon has increased, but swelling has decreased
      2. Posterior tibial tendon disrupted with multiple tears on imaging
      3. Subtalar joint is fixed
      4. Ankle Arthritis
  9. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Medial Ankle Sprain (most common misdiagnosis)
    2. Flexor digitorum longus Tendinopathy
    3. Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendinopathy
    4. Tarsal Navicular Stress Fracture
    5. Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
  10. Management
    1. Acute Management
      1. RICE-M
      2. NSAIDs
      3. Shoe Orthotic (decrease foot pronation and support arch)
      4. Medial longitudinal arch support taping
      5. Posterior tibial tendon Stretching and strengthening (Eccentric Exercises)
        1. Patient sits with affected leg crossed over the unaffected leg
        2. Resistance Band (e.g. Theraband) wrapped around affected midfoot
          1. Stabilize band under the planted unaffected foot on floor
        3. Patient passively inverts their foot and ankle against band resistance
          1. Then gradually relax and repeat
      6. Immobilization (e.g. CAM Walker boot) for 2-3 weeks
        1. Consider in severe cases
      7. Avoid Corticosteroid Injection (risk of posterior tibial tendon rupture)
    2. Orthopedic referral indications
      1. Failed conservative therapy above
      2. Consider for severe refractory stage 1 Tendinopathy
        1. Consider for Debridement with or without tenosynovectomy
      3. Consider for stage 2 Tendinopathy
        1. Consider for surgical management (e.g. flexor digitorum longus transfer)
      4. Stage 3 foot deformity
        1. Arthrodesis (subtalar or triple fusion)
  11. Complications: Occur more often in the absence of treatment
    1. Foot deformity (painful Flatfoot)
      1. See Rigid Flatfoot
    2. Posterior tibial tendon rupture
  12. References
    1. Deu (2022) Am Fam Physician 105(5): 479-86 [PubMed]
    2. Simpson (2009) Am Fam Physician 80(10): 1107-13 [PubMed]
    3. Gluck (2010) Am J Sports Med 38(10): 2133-44 [PubMed]

Tibialis posterior tenosynovitis (C0343223)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 240011009, 202919002
English Tibialis post tenosynovitis, Tibialis posterior tenosynovitis, Tibialis posterior tenosynovitis (disorder)
Spanish tenosinovitis tibial posterior (trastorno), tenosinovitis tibial posterior
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Tibialis posterior tendinitis (C0554595)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD10 M76.82
SnomedCT 202881005
English posterior tibial tendinitis (diagnosis), posterior tibial tendinitis, posterior tibial tendonitis, posterior tibialis tendinitis, tibialis posterior tendinitis, Posterior tibial tendinitis, Tibialis posterior tendinitis, Tibialis posterior tendinitis (disorder), Posterior tibialis tendinitis
Spanish tendinitis del músculo tibial posterior (trastorno), tendinitis del músculo tibial posterior
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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