Obstetrics Book

Delivery

Labor Induction

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Labor Induction

Aka: Labor Induction, Labor Augmentation, Medical Induction of Labor, Oxytocin Induction of Labor, Oxytocin Induction, Pitocin Induction, Oxytocin Augmentation, Pitocin Augmentation
  1. See Also
    1. Oxytocin (Pitocin)
    2. Failure to Progress (Labor Dystocia)
    3. Active Management of Labor
  2. Documentation
    1. Indication for Labor Induction
    2. Estimated fetal weight
    3. Fetal Position by Ultrasound
    4. Lung maturity for elective induction before 39 weeks
    5. Normal Fetal Assessment
  3. Indications
    1. Labor Augmentation
      1. Failure to Progress (Labor Dystocia)
    2. Labor Induction
      1. Gestation >39 weeks AND Bishop Score >= 5
        1. See Cervical Ripening for Bishop Score <5
      2. Rupture of Membranes
  4. Preparation: Oxytocin in Normal Saline Infusion
    1. Oxytocin 10 units in 1000 ml Normal Saline
      1. Starting rate of 6-12 ml/hour delivers 1-2 mU/minute
      2. Increasing rate 6 ml/hour delivers another 1 mU/min
    2. Oxytocin 20 units in 1000 ml Normal Saline
      1. Starting rate of 3-6 ml/hour delivers 1-2 mU/minute
      2. Increasing rate 3 ml/hour delivers another 1 mU/min
  5. Protocol: Low Dose
    1. See Monitoring below
    2. Start: 0.5 to 2 mIU/minute
    3. Increase: 1-2 mU/minute every 15-40 minutes
      1. Base Pitocin rate changes on contractions
      2. After 8 mIU/minute, may then increase by 2 mIU/minute
    4. Maximum: 40 mIU/minute
  6. Protocol: High Dose
    1. Low dose protocol is preferred in all patients (see efficacy below)
    2. Use only in Nulliparous patients only
    3. See Monitoring below
    4. Start: 6 mIU/minute
    5. Increase: 3-6 mIU/minute every 15-40 minutes
    6. Maximum: 40-42 mIU/minute
    7. As of 2019, evidence is against the use of high dose Oxytocin (See efficacy below)
  7. Monitoring
    1. Maternal Vital Signs
    2. Continuous Electronic Fetal Monitoring (CEFM)
    3. Intrauterine pressure catheter
      1. Adequate contraction pattern indicators
        1. Montevideo units >50 mmHg per contraction
        2. Montevideo units 200-300 mmHg per 10 minutes
      2. Observe for signs of hyperstimulation
        1. Fetal Distress
        2. Tetanic contractions
  8. Efficacy: Labor Induction
    1. Low-risk Nulliparous women may benefit from Labor Induction >39 weeks gestation if ripe Cervix
      1. ACOG Guidance
        1. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/practice-advisory/articles/2018/08/clinical-guidance-for-integration-of-the-findings-of-the-arrive-trial
      2. Grobman (2018) N Engl J Med 379(6): 513-23 [PubMed]
      3. Middleton (2018) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (5): CD004945 [PubMed]
  9. Efficacy: Labor Augmentation
    1. Oxytocin (Pitocin) is preferred in PROM
      1. Oral Mifepristone less effective, more side effects
      2. Wing (2005) Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:445-51 [PubMed]
    2. High dose Oxytocin Augmentation in Nulliparous women
      1. As of 2019, studies show no benefit in reduced labor time or reduced cesarean rate
        1. Low dose protocol is preferred as just as efficacious as high dose, with less tachysystole
        2. Prichard (2019) J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 32(3): 362-8 [PubMed]
        3. Budden (2014) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (10): CD009701 [PubMed]
      2. Early studies suggested decreased labor duration by 2 hours without added risk
        1. Merrill (1999) Obstet Gynecol 94:455-63 [PubMed]
    3. Birth pool as effective as Oxytocin Augmentation
      1. Less pain and less use of epidural analgesia
      2. Cluett (2004) BMJ 328:314-8 [PubMed]
  10. References
    1. LeFevre (2021) Am Fam Physician 103(2): 90-6 [PubMed]

Medical induction of labor (C0200066)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
ICD9 73.4
SnomedCT 151319001, 151315007, 288192001, 31208007
English Labor - medical induction NOS, Labour - medical induction NOS, Medical induction labor, Induction of labour;medical, Labour - medical induction NOS (procedure), Medical induction of labour (procedure), Labor - medical induction NOS (procedure), Medical induction of labor, Medical induction of labour, Medical induction of labor (procedure), Induction of labor;medical, medical induction of labor, medical induction of labour
Spanish trabajo de parto - inducción farmacológica, SAI (procedimiento), trabajo de parto - inducción farmacológica, SAI, Labor - medical induction NOS, Labour - medical induction NOS, inducción del parto, inducción médica del trabajo de parto (procedimiento), inducción médica del trabajo de parto
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Induction of labor procedure (C0259787)

Definition (NCI) The use of pharmacological and/or mechanical methods to initiate labor, including spontaneous rupture of membranes without contractions. Examples of methods include: artificial rupture of membranes, balloons, oxytocin, prostaglandin, laminaria, or other cervical ripening agents. (adapted from reVITALize)(NICHD)
Definition (MSH) Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
Definition (CSP) artificially induced uterine contractions intended to cause delivery of the fetus.
Definition (NIC) Initiation or augmentation of labor by mechanical or pharmacological methods
Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
MSH D007751
SnomedCT 236958009
LNC LA20022-2
English Induced Labor, Labor, Induced, induced labor, IND LABOR, LABOR IND, labour induction, labor induction, induction labour, inductions labor, of labor induction, of labour induction, induction labor, induction of labor, induction of labour, Induction of Labor, Labor induction, Labour induction, Induction of labor, Labor Induction, Induction of labour, IOL - Induction of labor, IOL - Induction of labour, Induction of labor (procedure), Labour Induction, Induction of labor procedure
German Einleitung der Wehen, Weheneinleitung, Geburt, eingeleitete, Geburtseinleitung
Italian Induzione di travaglio, Induzione del travaglio
Japanese 分娩誘発, ブンベンユウハツ, 分娩誘発法, 人工分娩, 誘発分娩, 分娩-誘発, 分娩誘起, 陣痛誘発
Swedish Värkarbete, framkallat
Finnish Käynnistetty synnytys
Russian RODY INDUTSIROVANNYE, RODY ISKUSSTVENNYE, РОДЫ ИНДУЦИРОВАННЫЕ, РОДЫ ИСКУССТВЕННЫЕ
Czech Indukce porodu, uměle vyvolávaný porod, vyvolaný porod, porod indukovaný, indukovaný porod
French Accouchement déclenché, Accouchement dirigé, Déclenchement du travail, Accouchement provoqué
Croatian POROĐAJ, INDUCIRANI
Polish Poród wywołany, Poród indukowany
Hungarian Szülés indukció
Norwegian Igangsetting av fødsel, Igangsettelse av fødsel
Spanish Parto Inducido, inducción del trabajo de parto (procedimiento), inducción del trabajo de parto, Inducción del parto, Trabajo de Parto Inducido
Portuguese Parto Induzido, Indução do trabalho de parto, Trabalho de Parto Induzido
Dutch opwekken van weeën, Bevalling, ingeleide, Ingeleide bevalling
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Oxytocin induction of labor (C0473284)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
SnomedCT 177135005
English Oxytocic induction of labor, Oxytocic induction of labour, Oxytocin induction of labor, Oxytocin induction of labour, Oxytocin induction of labor (procedure)
Spanish inducción del trabajo de parto con oxitocina (procedimiento), inducción del trabajo de parto con oxitocina
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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