Obstetrics Book

Developmental Disorder


Fetal Macrosomia

Aka: Fetal Macrosomia, Large for Gestational Age
  1. Also See
    1. Gestational Diabetes
    2. Labor Dystocia
    3. Shoulder Dystocia
    4. Intrauterine Growth Retardation (Small for Gestational Age)
  2. Definition
    1. Macrosomia
      1. Fetal weight 4500 grams (ranges from 4000-5000 grams)
    2. Large for Gestational Age
      1. Birth weight above 90th percentile
  3. Risk Factors: Macrosomia
    1. Maternal Diabetes Mellitus or Glucose Intolerance
    2. Multiparity
    3. Prior history of macrosomic infant
    4. Post-Dates Gestation
    5. Maternal Obesity or excessive weight gain
    6. Male fetus
    7. Parental stature
    8. Genetic disorders
      1. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome
      2. Sotos Syndrome
  4. Pathophysiology
    1. Fetal Growth
      1. Overgrowth
        1. Hallmark of Diabetes Mellitus
        2. No concurrent vascular disease present
      2. Intrauterine Growth Retardation
        1. Long standing Diabetes Mellitus
        2. Vascular Disease with decreased placental perfusion
    2. Control of Fetal Growth
      1. First half of pregnancy: Genetics
      2. Second half of pregnancy: Multifactorial
        1. Nutrients
        2. Oxygen
        3. Insulin as growth factor
    3. Selective Macrosomia
      1. Insulin sensitive tissue
        1. Heart
        2. Liver and Spleen
        3. Thymus
        4. Adrenal
        5. Subcutaneous fat
        6. Shoulders
      2. Insulin insensitive tissues
        1. Water content
        2. Brain mass (relative to rest of body)
  5. Signs: Classic infant of Diabetic Mother
    1. Gigantism
    2. Visceromegaly
    3. Plump, sleek liberally coated with vernix
    4. Full faced and plethoric
  6. Diagnosis
    1. Clinician's fetal weight estimate (Leopold's Maneuvers)
      1. Error in weight estimation: 300 grams
      2. More accurate than Obstetric Ultrasound estimate
      3. Estimate altered by physiologic characteristics
        1. Amniotic fluid volume
        2. Uterine Size and configuration
        3. Mother's body habitus
    2. Obstetric Ultrasound
      1. Error in weight estimation: 300 to 550 grams
      2. Estimated fetal weight and Abdominal circumference
      3. Correlates 88% with diagnosis of macrosomia
  7. Efficacy: Fetal Macrosomia prediction and prevention
    1. Cesarean delivery for fetal macrosmia indications
      1. ACOG recommends considering cesarean delivery for fetal weight >5000 g (11 lb)
      2. ACOG recommends considering cesarean delivery for Gestational Diabetes AND weight >4500 g (9 lb 15 oz)
      3. (2017) Obstet Gynecol 129(5): e123-33
    2. However, prior studies did not support early induction or Cesarean Section
      1. Elective Cesarean Section
        1. Analysis based on permanent Brachial Plexus Injury
        2. C/S for EFW 4500g prevents 1 case/3700 treated
        3. U.S. cost: $8.7 Million/case prevented
      2. Early induction
        1. Increases rate of Cesarean Section
        2. Does not favorably alter perinatal outcomes
        3. Sanchez-Ramos (2002) Obstet Gynecol 100:997-1002 [PubMed]
    3. Specific population targeting is also ineffective
      1. Vaginal Birth after Cesarean section
      2. Maternal Diabetes Mellitus
        1. Optimal Blood Glucose management is paramount
        2. Other intervention strategies are unproven
      3. Previous Shoulder Dystocia
  8. Management
    1. Tight glycemic control
      1. Decreased Fetal Macrosomia
      2. Decreased Neonatal Hypoglycemia
      3. Decreased perinatal mortality
    2. Elective Cesarean Section (no support in literature)
      1. Indications per ACOG
        1. Estimated fetal weight > 4500 grams
      2. Possible Indications if Estimated fetal weight >4000g
        1. Pelvic architecture
        2. Prior Cesarean Section
        3. Prior Shoulder Dystocia
        4. Evidence of Cephalopelvic Disproportion
        5. History of poor progress of labor
  9. Complications
    1. Labor Dystocia
      1. Labor Augmentation needed
      2. Prolonged second stage
    2. Shoulder Dystocia
    3. Perinatal asphyxia
    4. Birth injury
    5. Respiratory distress syndrome
    6. Hypoglycemia
  10. References
    1. Combs (1993) Obstet Gynecol 81:492-6 [PubMed]
    2. Rouse (1996) JAMA 276:1480-6 [PubMed]
    3. Weeks (1995) Am J Obstet Gynecol 173:1215-9 [PubMed]
    4. Zamorski (2001) Am Fam Physician 63(2):302-6 [PubMed]

Fetal Macrosomia (C0015938)

Definition (NCI) A fetus exceeding 4500 grams.(NICHD)
Definition (MSH) A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D005320
English Fetal Macrosomias, Macrosomia, Fetal, Macrosomias, Fetal, Fetal Macrosomia [Disease/Finding], fetal macrosomia, macrosomia fetal, Fetal macrosomia, Foetal macrosomia, Fetal Macrosomia
Japanese 胎児性巨大児, タイジセイキョダイジ, 巨体躯症-胎児, 巨大胎児, 胎児巨体躯症, 胎児-巨大
Swedish Stort foster
Czech fétus - makrozomie, Makrosomie plodu, Fetální makrosomie, velký plod
Finnish Sikiön jättikasvu
Spanish Macrosomía Fetal, Macrosomía fetal
Polish Płód olbrzymi, Gigantyzm płodowy, Makrosomia płodu
Hungarian Magzat macrosomiája, Magzati macrosomia
Norwegian Føtal makrosomi, Makrosomi, føtal
Portuguese Macrossomia fetal, Macrossomia Fetal
Dutch foetale macrosomie, Foetale macrosomie, Macrosomie, foetale
German fetale Makrosomie, Fetale Makrosomie, Makrosomie, fetale
Italian Macrosomia fetale
French Macrosomie foetale
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

You are currently viewing the original 'fpnotebook.com\legacy' version of this website. Internet Explorer 8.0 and older will automatically be redirected to this legacy version.

If you are using a modern web browser, you may instead navigate to the newer desktop version of fpnotebook. Another, mobile version is also available which should function on both newer and older web browsers.

Please Contact Me as you run across problems with any of these versions on the website.

Navigation Tree