Neurology Book

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Occipital Lobe

Aka: Occipital Lobe, Occipital Lobe Function, Cerebral Occipital Lobe, Primary visual cortex, V1 Visual Cortex, Brodmann Area 17, Secondary Visual Cortex, V2 Visual Cortex, Brodmann Area 18, Associative visual cortex, V3 V4 and V5 Visual Cortex, Brodmann Area 19, Brodmann Areas of Occipital Lobe, Superior Occipital Gyrus, Lateral Occipital Gyrus, Inferior Occipital Gyrus, Lingual Gyrus, Cuneus
  1. Definitions
    1. Occipital Lobe
      1. Occipital Lobe primarily functions to receive and process visual input
      2. Brodmann Area 17 (V1) receives sensory input from the lateral geniculate nucleus in the Thalamus
      3. Subsequent signal processing
        1. Ventral stream (V2, Area 18) for form recognition and object representation
        2. Dorsal stream which processes motion and spatial orientation
        3. Further visual processing is performed in V4, a part of the Associative visual cortex (Area 19).
  2. Anatomy: Brodmann Areas of Occipital Lobe
    1. Images
      1. neuroBrodmannMedial.png
      2. neuroBrodmannLateral.png
    2. Primary visual cortex (V1, Area 17)
      1. Receives sensory input from the lateral geniculate nucleus in the Thalamus.
      2. Lesions to this Primary visual cortex result in blindness of the contralateral Visual Field.
      3. Signals are then passed to the ventral stream (V2)
        1. Form recognition and object representation
      4. Signals are passed to the dorsal stream
        1. Processes motion and spatial orientation
    3. Secondary Visual Cortex (V2, Area 18)
      1. Part of the ventral stream, V2 receives visual input from the Primary visual cortex (V1)
      2. Processes the information for form recognition and object representation
      3. Also sends signals to the Associative visual cortex (V4) for further processing
    4. Associative visual cortex (V3, V4, V5, Area 19)
      1. Part of the ventral stream, V4 receives visual input from the Secondary Visual Cortex (V2)
      2. Further processes the information for form recognition and object representation
      3. Lesions to V4 will result in visual Agnosia (difficulty in object recognition)
  3. Exam
    1. Matches colors and objects (if unable to name them)
  4. Signs: Brain Lesions
    1. Contralateral hemianopia
  5. References
    1. Newton (1994) Am Fam Physician 49(4): 787-97 [PubMed]

Occipital lobe (C0028785)

Definition (FMA) Occipital lobe is the one of five lobes of the cerebral hemisphere which occupies the posterior-most portion of the hemisphere. Anteriorly, it shares an arbitrary border with the parietal lobe and temporal lobe. Medially, it is bounded by the longitudinal cerebral fissure.
Definition (NCI) The posterior part of the cerebral hemisphere. (MeSH)
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The posterior part of the cerebral hemisphere. (MeSH)
Definition (MSH) Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D009778
SnomedCT 31065004
English Occipital Lobes, Lobe, Occipital, Lobes, Occipital, Occipital Lobe, Occipital lobe, Tiss of occipital lobe brain, Tissue of occipital lobe of brain, Regio occipitalis, Occipital region, Occipital cortex, occipital lobes, lobe occipital, occipital lobe, OL, occipital region, occipital cortex, Lobus occipitalis, Occipital lobes, OCCIPITAL LOBE, Occipital Region, Region, Occipital, Occipital Regions, Regions, Occipital, Occipital lobe structure (body structure), Occipital lobe structure, Occipital lobe, NOS, lobus occipitalis
Swedish Nacklob
Czech okcipitální lalok
Finnish Takaraivolohko
Russian ZATYLOCHNAIA DOLIA, ЗАТЫЛОЧНАЯ ДОЛЯ
Croatian Not Translated[Occipital Lobe]
Polish Płat potyliczny
Norwegian Occipitallapp, Bakhodelapp, Lobus occipitalis
Spanish estructura del lóbulo occipital (estructura corporal), estructura del lóbulo occipital, lóbulo occipital, Lóbulo Occipital
French Lobe occipital
German Okzipitallappen
Italian Lobo occipitale
Dutch Achterhoofdskwab, Achterkwab, Lobus occipitalis (cerebri), Occipitaalkwab
Portuguese Lobo Occipital
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Structure of cuneus (C0152307)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D009778
SnomedCT 74493001
English Cuneate lobule, Cuneus of hemisphere, Cuneus gyrus, cuneate lobule, cuneus of hemisphere, cuneus gyrus, Cun, cuneus, Gyrus cuneus, Cuneus Gyrus, Cuneate Lobules, Lobule, Cuneate, Lobules, Cuneate, Gyrus, Cuneus, Cuneate Lobule, Cuneus, Structure of cuneus (body structure), Structure of cuneus
Spanish cuneus, cuña, estructura del cuneus (estructura corporal), estructura del cuneus
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Lingual gyrus (C0152308)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D009778
SnomedCT 7344002
English Lingual gyrus, Lingula of cerebral hemisphere, Medial occipitotemporal gyrus-2, lingula of cerebral hemisphere, medial occipitotemporal gyrus-2, lingual gyrus, medial occipitotemporal gyrus, LiG, Gyrus lingualis, Gyrus occipitotemporalis medialis, Gyrus Lingualis, Gyrus, Lingual, Gyrus, Medial Occipitotemporal, Occipitotemporal Gyrus, Medial, Gyrus Linguali, Lingualis, Gyrus, Lingual Gyrus, Medial Occipitotemporal Gyrus, Linguali, Gyrus, Structure of lingual gyrus (body structure), Structure of lingual gyrus
Spanish circunvolución lingual, estructura de la circunvolución lingual (estructura corporal), estructura de la circunvolución lingual
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


lateral occipital gyrus (human only) (C0228228)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
SnomedCT 22735005
English Gyrus occipitalis lateralis, Middle occipital gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, lateral occipital gyrus, MOcG, Gyrus occipitalis medius, Gyrus occipitalis secundus, lateral occipital gyrus (human only), Lateral occipital gyrus, Structure of lateral occipital gyrus (body structure), Structure of lateral occipital gyrus
Spanish circunvolución occipital lateral, estructura de la circunvolución occipital lateral (estructura corporal), estructura de la circunvolución occipital lateral
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


superior occipital gyrus (human only) (C0228230)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
SnomedCT 1092001
English superior occipital gyrus, SOG, Gyrus occipitalis primus, Gyrus occipitalis superior, superior occipital gyrus (human only), Superior occipital gyrus, Structure of superior occipital gyrus (body structure), Structure of superior occipital gyrus
Spanish circunvolución occipital superior, estructura de la circunvolución occipital superior (estructura corporal), estructura de la circunvolución occipital superior
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Inferior occipital gyrus (C0228231)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
SnomedCT 87408004
English Inferior occipital gyrus, Structure of inferior occipital gyrus (body structure), Structure of inferior occipital gyrus
Spanish circunvolución occipital inferior, estructura de la circunvolución occipital inferior (estructura corporal), estructura de la circunvolución occipital inferior
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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