Neurology Book

Otolaryngology

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Aphasia

Aka: Aphasia, Receptive Aphasia, Expressive Aphasia, Broca Aphasia, Nonfluent Aphasia, Wernicke's Aphasia
  1. See Also
    1. Speech Exam (includes Dysarthria)
    2. Mental Status Exam
  2. Pathophysiology
    1. Images
      1. neuroBrodmannMedial.png
      2. neuroBrodmannLateral.png
    2. Results from CNS Disease affecting the dominant hemisphere
      1. In contrast, lesions in similar areas of the non-dominant hemisphere result in visual or auditory inattention
    3. Broca's Speech Area (Brodmann Area 44 and 45)
      1. Lesions in this region of the dominant hemisphere result in Expressive Aphasia
    4. Wernicke's Area (Brodmann Area 22)
      1. Lesions in this region of the dominant hemisphere result in Receptive Aphasia of spoken word
    5. Angular Gyrus (Brodmann Area 39)
      1. Lesions in this area of the dominant hemisphere affect reading (alexia) and writing (agraphia)
  3. Definitions
    1. Aphasia
      1. Communication disorder with impaired expression or comprehension of verbal and written language
    2. Expressive Aphasia (Broca Aphasia, Nonfluent Aphasia)
      1. Defect in expressing speech, writing or signs
    3. Receptive Aphasia (Wernicke's Aphasia)
      1. Defect in understanding speech or written word
  4. Testing
    1. Naming, fluency, follow commands
      1. Vocabulary
      2. Wrong words or poor grammar used?
    2. Repeating words
      1. No ifs, ands, or buts
      2. Thing
      3. It
    3. Observe for repetition
      1. Circumlocutory
      2. Echolalia
      3. Palilalia
  5. References
    1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Physiology, Medmasters, Miami, p. 106-7

Aphasia (C0003537)

Definition (MSHCZE) Afázie je získaná porucha řeči, která vzniká na základě ložiskového poškození mozku, nejčastěji kortikálních oblastí dominantní hemisféry. Z hlediska lokalizačního jsou nejčastější příčinou vzniku afázie kortikální léze, a to v perisylvické oblasti (Brocova, Wernickeova area), léze v oblastech fascikulus arcuatus, gyrus angularis, inferiorní gyrus frontalis, gyrus supramarginalis a ze subkortikálních oblastí léze thalamu a basálních ganglií. (Afázie/PGS/diagnostika, Wikiskripta)
Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Aphasia is a disorder caused by damage to the parts of the brain that control language. It can make it hard for you to read, write, and say what you mean to say. It is most common in adults who have had a stroke. Brain tumors, infections, injuries, and dementia can also cause it. The type of problem you have and how bad it is depends on which part of your brain is damaged and how much damage there is.

There are four main types:

  • Expressive aphasia - you know what you want to say, but you have trouble saying or writing what you mean
  • Receptive aphasia - you hear the voice or see the print, but you can't make sense of the words
  • Anomic aphasia - you have trouble using the correct word for objects, places, or events
  • Global aphasia - you can't speak, understand speech, read, or write

Some people recover from aphasia without treatment. Most, however, need language therapy as soon as possible.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Definition (MSH) A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
Definition (PSY) Partial or complete impairment of language comprehension, formulation, or use due to brain damage.
Definition (CSP) cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form; caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere; general categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
MSH D001037
ICD9 784.3
ICD10 R47.01
SnomedCT 206967005, 158305006, 87486003
LNC MTHU020799, LA18262-8
English Aphasia, APHASIA, [D]Aphasia, [D]Aphasia (context-dependent category), Alogias, Alogia, Anepias, Anepia, Logagnosias, Logagnosia, Logamnesias, Logamnesia, Logasthenias, Logasthenia, Aphasia [Disease/Finding], inability to understand or express language, alogia, [D]Aphasia (situation), Loss of power of expression or comprehension, Aphasia (finding), Aphasic disturbance, aphasia, Aphasia, NOS, Aphasic disturbance, NOS
French APHASIE, Aphasie, Alogie, Logagnosie
Portuguese AFASIA, Afasia
Spanish AFASIA, [D]afasia (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]afasia, [D]afasia (situación), afasia (hallazgo), afasia, perturbación afásica, pérdida del poder de expresión o comprensión, Afasia
German APHASIE, Aphasie, Aphemie
Swedish Afasi
Japanese シツゴショウ, 失語症-後天性, 失語性言語障害, 失語, 失語症, 後天性失語症
Czech afázie, Afázie, anepie, logagnozie, logastenie, alogie
Finnish Afasia
Italian Anepia, Logagnosia, Logamnesia, Logastenia, Alogia, Afasia
Russian AFAZIIA, AFAZIIA PRIOBRETENNAIA, DISFAZIIA, AFAZIIA DETSKAIA, АФАЗИЯ, АФАЗИЯ ДЕТСКАЯ, АФАЗИЯ ПРИОБРЕТЕННАЯ, ДИСФАЗИЯ
Croatian AFAZIJA
Polish Afazja
Hungarian Aphasia
Norwegian Afasi
Dutch afasie, Afasie
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Aphasia, Broca (C0003550)

Definition (MSH) An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).
Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
MSH D001039
SnomedCT 229654003, 53282007, 328681008
English Aphasia, Broca, Aphasia, Motor, Aphasia, Nonfluent, Aphasias, Broca, Broca Aphasia, Broca Aphasias, Nonfluent Aphasia, APHASIA MOTOR, Aphasia motor, Broca aphasia, Aphasia, Frontocortical, Frontocortical Aphasia, Aphasia Syndrome, Verbal, Aphasia Syndromes, Verbal, Syndrome, Verbal Aphasia, Syndromes, Verbal Aphasia, Verbal Aphasia Syndrome, Verbal Aphasia Syndromes, Aphasias, Frontocortical, Frontocortical Aphasias, Broca Dysphasia, Broca's Dysphasia, Dysphasia, Broca, Dysphasia, Broca's, Dysphasia, Brocas, Nonfluent aphasia, Broca dysphasia, Aphasia, Broca [Disease/Finding], aphasia brocas, aphasia motor, aphasia broca, broca aphasia, broca's aphasia, motor aphasia, Broca's Aphasia, Agrammatic, Broca's Aphasias, Agrammatic, Agrammatic Broca Aphasia, Aphasia, Agrammatic Broca's, Aphasias, Agrammatic Broca's, Agrammatic Brocas Aphasia, Broca Aphasia, Agrammatic, Aphasias, Agrammatic Broca, Broca Aphasias, Agrammatic, Agrammatic Broca's Aphasia, Agrammatic Broca Aphasias, Agrammatic Broca's Aphasias, Agrammatism, Aphasia, Agrammatic Broca, Broca's aphasia, Frontocortical aphasia, Motor aphasia, Broca's dysphasia, Broca's dysphasia (finding), Motor aphasia (finding), Motor aphasia (finding) [Ambiguous], Motor Aphasia, Broca's Aphasia
Portuguese AFASIA MOTORA, Afasia motora, Afasia de Broca, Afasia Motora, Afasia não Fluente, Disfasia de Broca
Spanish AFASIA MOTORA, Afasia motora, afasia de Broca, afasia frontocortical, afasia motora (concepto no activo), afasia motora (hallazgo), afasia motora, disfasia de Broca (hallazgo), disfasia de Broca, Afasia de Broca, Afasia Motora, Afasia no Fluente, Disfasia de Broca
Dutch afasie motorisch, Afasie, Broca-, Afasie, expressieve, Afasie, motorische, Broca-afasie, Dysfasie, Broca-
German Aphasie motorisch, Broca-Aphasie, APHASIE MOTORISCH, Aphasie, Broca-, Aphasie, motorische, Aphasie, stockende Sprache, Sprachverlust, motorischer, Brocaaphasie, Dysphasie, Broca-, Motorische Aphasie
Swedish Afasi, Broca
Japanese ブローカシツゴショウ, ウンドウセイシツゴショウ, 運動性失語症, 表現的失語症, 失語症-非能弁性, ブロカ失語症, 運動性失語, 失文法, 皮質性運動性失語, Broca失語症, 非能弁性失語症, ブロカ失語, 失文法症, 失語症-表現的, 失語症-ブローカ, 皮質性運動性失語症, ブローカ失語症, 皮質運動性失語, ブローカ失語, 失語症-運動性, 運動失語, 皮質運動性失語症, 失語症-Broca, Broca失語
Finnish Motorinen afasia
Italian Afasia frontocorticale, Sindrome da afasia verbale, Afasia non fluente, Disfasia di Broca, Afasia motoria, Afasia di Broca
Russian AFAZIIA BROKA, AFAZIIA EKSPRESSIVNAIA, AFAZIIA MOTORNAIA, AGRAMMATIZM, BROKA AFAZIIA, АГРАММАТИЗМ, АФАЗИЯ БРОКА, АФАЗИЯ МОТОРНАЯ, АФАЗИЯ ЭКСПРЕССИВНАЯ, БРОКА АФАЗИЯ
French APHASIE MOTRICE, Aphasie de Broca, Aphasie motrice, Aphasie non-fluente, Aphasie transcorticale motrice
Czech Motorická afázie, Brocaova afázie, neplynulá afázie, motorická afázie, Brocova afázie, Brockova afázie, afázie Brocova
Polish Afazja motoryczna, Afazja ruchowa
Hungarian Motoros aphasia, Broca-aphasia
Norwegian Brocas afasi, Brocaafasi, Afasi, motorisk, Afasi, Brocas, Brocas dysfasi, Motorisk afasi
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Receptive aphasia (finding) (C0454578)

Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
MSH D001041
SnomedCT 329676006, 68988003, 69206000, 229664007
English Aphasia, Fluent, Aphasia, Receptive, Aphasia, Sensory, Fluent Aphasia, Sensory Aphasia, APHASIA SENSORY, Aphasia sensory, Aphasia, Psychosensory, Psychosensory Aphasia, Aphasias, Psychosensory, Psychosensory Aphasias, Dysphasia, Fluent, Fluent Dysphasia, Dysphasia, Receptive, Receptive Dysphasia, Dysphasia, Sensory, Sensory Dysphasia, Dysphasias, Fluent, Fluent Dysphasias, Dysphasias, Receptive, Receptive Dysphasias, Dysphasias, Sensory, Sensory Dysphasias, receptive dysphasia, aphasia sensory, fluent aphasia, aphasia receptive, receptive aphasia, Fluent aphasia, Psycho-sensory aphasia, Receptive aphasia, Sensory aphasia, Fluent dysphasia, Receptive dysphasia, Fluent aphasia (finding), Receptive dysphasia (disorder), Receptive aphasia (finding), sensory; aphasia, aphasia; sensory, Receptive aphasia (finding) [Ambiguous], Receptive Aphasia
French APHASIE SENSORIELLE, Aphasie de réception, Dysphasie réceptive, Aphasie sensorielle, Aphasie fluente, Aphasie réceptive
Portuguese AFASIA SENSORIAL, Afasia de fluência, Afasia de recepção, Afasia sensorial, Afasia de Recepção, Disfasia de recepção, Afasia Sensorial
Spanish AFASIA SENSORIAL, Afasia receptiva, Afasia fluente, Afasia sensorial, Afasia Receptiva, Disfasia receptiva, afasia psicosensitiva, afasia sensitiva, afasia de comprensión, afasia fluente (hallazgo), afasia fluente, afasia receptiva, afasia sensorial (hallazgo), afasia sensorial, afasia temporoparietal, disfasia receptiva (trastorno), disfasia receptiva, Afasia Sensorial
Dutch afasie sensorisch, receptieve afasie, sensore afasie, receptieve dysfasie, afasie; sensorisch, sensorisch; afasie, Receptieve afasie, Sensorische afasie
German fluessige Aphasie, Aphasie sensorische, rezeptive Aphasie, Rezeptive Aphasie, APHASIE SENSORISCH, rezeptive Dysphasie, Aphasie, rezeptive, Sensorische Aphasie
Japanese 流暢性失語症, 感覚性失語症, 受容失語症, カンカクセイシツゴショウ, ジュヨウシツゴショウ, リュウチョウセイシツゴショウ, 受容不全失語症, ジュヨウフゼンシツゴショウ
Czech senzorická afázie, percepční afázie, Fluentní afázie, Percepční afázie, Senzorická afázie, Perceptivní dysfázie
Hungarian Sensoros aphasia, Receptiv dysphasia, Receptiv aphasia, Fluens aphasia
Italian Afasia fluente, Disfasia sensoriale, Afasia recettiva, Afasia sensoriale, Disfasia fluente, Disfasia recettiva
Norwegian Flytende afasi, Afasi, flytende, Reseptiv afasi, Afasi, sensorisk, Sensorisk afasi, Afasi, reseptiv
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Aphasia, Expressive (C0917814)

Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
MSH D001039
SnomedCT 229665008, 53282007
English Expressive Aphasia, expressive dysphasia, expressive aphasia, Expressive aphasia, Expressive dysphasia, Expressive dysphasia (finding), Aphasia, Expressive
Dutch expressieve afasie, expressieve dysfasie
German expressive Aphasie, Aphasie, expressive, expressive Dysphasie
Portuguese Afasia de expressão, Disfasia de expressão
Spanish Afasia expresiva, Disfasia expresiva, afasia de expresión (hallazgo), afasia de expresión, afasia expresiva
Japanese 表出性失語症, ヒョウシュツセイシツゴショウ, ヒョウシュツセイフゼンシツゴショウ, 表出性不全失語症
French Aphasie d'expression, Dysphasie expressive, Aphasie expressive
Czech Expresivní afázie, Expresivní dysfázie, expresivní afázie
Italian Disfasia espressiva, Afasia espressiva
Hungarian Expressiv aphasia, Expressiv dysphasia
Norwegian Ekspressiv afasi, Afasi, ekspressiv
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Wernicke Aphasia (C1510456)

Definition (MSH) Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)
Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
MSH D001041
SnomedCT 330656002, 229657005, 329676006, 68988003
English Aphasia, Wernicke, Aphasias, Wernicke, Wernicke Aphasias, Wernicke aphasia, Aphasia, Wernicke's Fluent, Fluent Aphasia, Wernicke, Fluent Aphasia, Wernicke's, Fluent Aphasia, Wernickes, Wernicke's Fluent Aphasia, Dysphasia, Wernicke, Dysphasia, Wernicke's, Dysphasia, Wernickes, Wernicke Dysphasia, Wernicke's Dysphasia, Wernicke dysphasia, Aphasia, Wernicke [Disease/Finding], wernicke aphasia, wernicke's aphasia, aphasia wernickes, Wernicke's aphasia, Temporoparietal aphasia, Wernicke's fluent aphasia, Wernicke's receptive aphasia, Wernicke's dysphasia, Wernicke's dysphasia (disorder), Wernicke; aphasia, aphasia; Wernicke, Wernicke's dysphasia [Ambiguous], Wernicke Aphasia
Swedish Wernickes afasi
Finnish Sensorinen afasia
Italian Disfasia di Wernicke, Afasia fluente di Wernicke, Afasia di Wernicke
Russian VERNIKE AFAZIIA, AFAZIIA RETSEPTIVNAIA, AFAZIIA SENSORNAIA, AFAZIIA VERNIKE, АФАЗИЯ ВЕРНИКЕ, АФАЗИЯ РЕЦЕПТИВНАЯ, АФАЗИЯ СЕНСОРНАЯ, ВЕРНИКЕ АФАЗИЯ
Japanese Wernicke失語症, 失語症-感覚性, 受容失語症, ヴェルニッケ失語, ヴェルニッケ失語症, Wernick失語, 失語症-能弁, ウェルニッケ失語, 能弁失語症, 感覚失語症, ウェルニッケ失語症, 失語症-受容, 感覚性失語症, 感覚失語, 感覚性失語, 失語症-ウェルニッケ, Wernick失語症, 失語症-Wernicke
Polish Afazja czuciowa, Afazja Wernickego
Czech Wernickeho afázie, afázie Wernickeova, Wernickeova afázie
Norwegian Wernickes flytende afasi, Afasi, Wernickes, Wernickes afasi, Flytende afasi, Wernickes
Spanish afasia receptiva, afasia temporoparietal, afasia receptiva (hallazgo), afasia fluida de Wernicke, afasia de Wernicke, afasia receptiva (concepto no activo), afasia receptiva de Wernicke, disfasia de Wernicke (trastorno), disfasia de Wernicke, Afasia de Wernicke, Disfasia de Wernicke
Dutch Wernicke; afasie, afasie; Wernicke, Afasie, Wernicke-, Wernicke-afasie
German Aphasie, Wernicke-, Dysphasie, Wernicke-, Wernicke-Aphasie, Sprachverständnisstörung
Portuguese Afasia de Wernicke, Disfasia de Wernicke
French Aphasie de Wernicke, Aphasie fluente de type Wernicke
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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