Neurology Book




Aka: Amnesia, Amnestic Syndrome, Amnestic Disorder, Memory Loss, Retrograde Amnesia, Anterograde Amnesia, Post-Traumatic Amnestic Disorder
  1. See Also
    1. Psychogenic Amnesia (Dissociative Amnesia)
    2. Transient Global Amnesia
    3. Memory Evaluation
  2. Definitions
    1. Amnesia
      1. Systematic and extensive loss of memory, due to psychological or organic cause
    2. Retrograde Amnesia
      1. Inability to recall past experiences
    3. Anterograde Amnesia
      1. Inability to form new memories after a certain time point
  3. Background
    1. Term Amnesia is derived from the greek for a (without) and mnesis (memory)
  4. Pathophysiology
    1. Organic causes most often affect the Hippocampus and medial Temporal Lobes
    2. Longterm memories are often preserved better than memories acquired in closer proximity to Amnesia onset
    3. Working memory is often preserved despite Amnesia
  5. Causes
    1. Psychological (transient)
      1. Psychogenic Amnesia (Dissociative Amnesia)
      2. Transient Global Amnesia
    2. Organic (chronic)
      1. Post-Traumatic Amnestic Disorder
        1. Traumatic Head Injury
        2. Cerebrovascular Accident
        3. Neurosurgery
        4. Electroconvulsive Therapy
        5. Anoxic or hypoxic brain injury
      2. Infection
        1. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis
      3. Chronic Thiamine deficiency
        1. Alcohol Amnestic Disorder (Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome)
        2. Beriberi
      4. Drug-Induced Amnesia
        1. Alcohol Intoxication (e.g. blackout)
        2. Benzodiazepines
  6. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Dementia
    2. Delirium
    3. Complex Partial Seizure
    4. Classic Migraine Headache
  7. References
    1. Allen (2018) F1000Res +PMID:29623196 [PubMed]
    2. Brown and Hachinski in Wilson et. al. (1991) Harrison's Internal Medicine, Twelfth Edition, McGraw-Hill, St. Louis, p.188-9

Amnesia (C0002622)

Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by systematic and extensive loss of memory.
Definition (NCI) Systematic and extensive loss of memory caused by organic or psychological factors. The loss may be temporary or permanent, and may involve old or recent memories.
Definition (MSH) Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
Definition (PSY) Partial or complete loss of memory caused by organic or psychological factors. The loss may be temporary or permanent, and may involve old or recent memories. Compare FORGETTING and MEMORY DECAY.
Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
MSH D000647
ICD10 R41.3
SnomedCT 162199006, 247606008, 78461004, 48167000, 386807006
English Amnesia, Amnesias, AMNESIA, amnesia (diagnosis), amnesia, Amnesia Memory Loss, Amnesia-Memory Loss, Amnesia-Memory Losses, Amnesia NOS, Memory loss NOS, Amnesia [Disease/Finding], dysmnesia, memory loss, amnesias, loss of memory, Amnesia symptom, Amnesia (disorder), LOSS OF MEMORY, MEMORY LOSS, Dysmnesia, Memory loss, Memory gone, Memory loss - amnesia, LOM - Loss of memory, Loss of memory, Amnesia (finding), Amnesia, NOS
French AMNESIE, Amnésie
Portuguese AMNESIA, Amnésia, Amnésia Global
Spanish AMNESIA, dismnesia, Amnesia Global, amnesia (hallazgo), amnesia, pérdida de la memoria, Amnesia
German AMNESIE, Amnesie
Swedish Minnesförlust
Japanese ケンボウ, 健忘症, 記憶消失, 健忘, 記憶喪失
Czech amnézie, Amnézie
Finnish Amnesia
Italian Perdita di memoria, Amnesia
Polish Niepamięć, Amnezja
Hungarian Amnesia
Norwegian Amnesi, Hukommelsestap
Dutch amnesie, Amnesie, Geheugenverlies
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Retrograde amnesia (C0002624)

Definition (MSH) Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
Definition (PSY) Memory loss for events and experiences that occurred before the incident that produced the amnesia.
Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
MSH D000648
ICD10 R41.2
SnomedCT 206784007, 158178004, 51921000
English Amnesia, Retrograde, Amnesias, Retrograde, Retrograde Amnesia, Retrograde Amnesias, Retrograde amnesia, Amnesia (retrograde), [D]Amnesia (retrograde), [D]Amnesia (retrograde) (context-dependent category), Amnesia, Retrograde [Disease/Finding], retrograde amnesia, [D]Amnesia (retrograde) (situation), RA - Retrograde amnesia, Retrograde amnesia (finding), retrograde; amnesia, amnesia; retrograde
Swedish Minnesförlust, retrograd
Spanish [D]amnesia (retrógrada) (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]amnesia (retrógrada), [D]amnesia (retrógrada) (situación), amnesia retrógrada (hallazgo), amnesia retrógrada, Amnesia retrógrada, Amnesia Retrógrada
Japanese ギャッコウセイケンボウ, 逆向性健忘症, 逆行性健忘, 退行性健忘症, 逆行健忘, 逆行健忘症, 健忘-退行性, 退行性健忘, 逆行性健忘症, 健忘症-退行性, 逆向健忘, 健忘症-逆行性
Czech amnézie retrográdní, Retrográdní amnézie
Finnish Retrogradinen amnesia
Korean 역행성 건망증
Polish Amnezja wsteczna, Niepamięć wsteczna
Hungarian Retrograd amnesia
Norwegian Retrograd amnesi, Amnesi, retrograd
Dutch amnesie; retrograde, retrograde; amnesie, retrograde amnesie, Amnesie, amnestisch; retrograde, Retrograde amnesie
Portuguese Amnésia Rerógrada, Amnésia Retrógrada
German retrograde Amnesie, Amnesie, retrograde, Retrograde Amnesie
French Amnésie rétrograde
Italian Amnesia retrograda
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Amnestic Disorder (C0002625)

Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
ICD9 294.0
SnomedCT 3298001
DSM4 294.8
English AMNESTIC DISORDERS, Amnestic Disorder NOS, Amnestic disorder NOS, Amnestic disorders, Amnestic disord oth dis, organic amnestic syndrome, amnesic syndrome, amnestic disorders, amnestic syndrome, amnestic disorder (diagnosis), amnestic disorder, Amnestic disorder, Amnestic syndrome, Amnesic syndrome, Amnestic disorder (disorder), organic; amnestic syndrome, syndrome; organic amnesic, Amnestic disorder, NOS, Amnestic Disorder, Nonalcoholic Korsakoff's psychosis or syndrome, Korsakoff's psychosis or syndrome, Amnestic disorder in conditions classified elsewhere
German amnestische Erkrankung, Amnesiesyndrom, Gedaechtnisstoerung NNB, Gedaechtnisstoerungen
Italian Disturbi amnestici, Disturbo amnestico, Sindrome amnesica, Disturbo amnestico NAS
Dutch amnestische stoornis NAO, amnestisch syndroom, organisch; amnestisch syndroom, syndroom; organisch amnestisch, amnestische stoornissen, amnestische stoornis
French Syndrome amnésique, Trouble amnésique SAI, Trouble amnésique, Troubles amnésiques
Portuguese Perturbação amnésica NE, Síndrome amnésica, Perturbação amnésica, Perturbações amnésicas
Spanish Síndrome amnésico, Trastorno amnésico NEOM, trastorno amnésico (trastorno), trastorno amnésico, Trastorno amnésico, Trastornos amnésicos
Japanese 健忘症候群, 健忘障害, 健忘障害NOS, ケンボウショウガイ, ケンボウショウガイNOS, ケンボウショウコウグン
Czech Amnestické poruchy, Amnestický syndrom, Amnestická porucha, Amnestická porucha NOS
Hungarian Amnestikus zavar k.m.n., Amnesiás betegségek, Amnestikus zavar, Amnestikus syndroma
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Amnesia, Anterograde (C0233795)

Definition (MSH) Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)
Definition (PSY) Memory loss for events and experiences that occurred after the incident that produced the amnesia.
Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
MSH D020324
ICD10 R41.1
SnomedCT 206789002, 88822006
English [D]Anterograde amnesia, [D]Anterograde amnesia (context-dependent category), Amnesia, Anterograde, Amnesias, Anterograde, Anterograde Amnesia, Anterograde Amnesias, Anterograde Memory Loss, Anterograde Memory Losses, Memory Loss, Anterograde, Memory Losses, Anterograde, Amnesia, Anterograde [Disease/Finding], antegrade amnesia, anterograde amnesia (diagnosis), anterograde amnesia, amnesia anterograde, [D]Anterograde amnesia (situation), Anterograde amnesia, Antegrade amnesia, Anterograde amnesia (finding), amnesia; anterograde
Swedish Minnesförlust, anterograd
Spanish [D]amnesia anterógrada (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]amnesia anterógrada (situación), [D]amnesia anterógrada, amnesia anterógrada (hallazgo), amnesia anterógrada, Amnesia anterógrada, Pérdida de la Memoria Anterógrada, Amnesia Anterógrada
Japanese ゼンコウセイケンボウ, 健忘症-前向, 前向性健忘症, 前向健忘症, 前向性健忘, 前向健忘, 記憶喪失-発作後, 健忘-前向, 前向性記憶喪失, 発作後記憶喪失, 健忘-前向性, 記憶喪失-前向性, 健忘症-前向性
Czech ztráta paměti anterográdní, amnézie anterográdní, Anterográdní amnézie
Finnish Anterogradinen muistinmenetys
Italian Perdita della memoria anterograda, Amnesia anterograda
Korean 선행성 건망증
Polish Amnezja następcza, Pourazowa utrata pamięci, Niepamięć następcza
Hungarian Anterograd amnesia
Norwegian Anterograd amnesi, Anterograd hukommelsestap
Portuguese Perda de Memória Pós-Convulsão Epiléptica, Amnésia anterógrada, Amnésia Anterógrada, Perda de Memória Anterógrada
Dutch amnesie; anterograde, anterograde amnesie, Amnesie, anterograde, Anterograde amnesie, Geheugenverlies, anterograad
German anterograde Amnesie, Anterograde Amnesie, Amnesie, anterograde, Erinnerungslücke, anterograde
French Amnésie antérograde, Perte de mémoire antérograde
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Memory Loss (C0751295)

Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
MSH D008569
ICD9 780.93
SnomedCT 162199006
LNC MTHU013522
English MEMORY LOSS, Memory loss, Loss of memory, memory loss or impairment, Memory loss of, Memory Loss, Memory Losses, memory loss, Lack (of);memory, Loss (of);memory, Memory loss symptom, lack of; memory, loss; memory, memory; lack of, memory; loss, lack of memory, loss of memory
Dutch verlies van geheugen, geheugenverlies, gebrek; geheugen, geheugen; gebrek, geheugen; verlies, verlies; geheugen, Geheugenverlies
French Perte de la mémoire, Perte de mémoire, PERTE DE MEMOIRE
German Gedaechtnisverlust, Gedächtnisverlust, GEDAECHTNISVERLUST
Italian Perdita di memoria, Perdita della memoria
Portuguese Perda de memória, Perda de Memória, PERDA DE MEMORIA
Spanish Pérdida de memoria, Pérdida de la memoria, Pérdida de la Memoria, MEMORIA, PERDIDA
Japanese 記憶喪失, キオクソウシツ
Czech Ztráta paměti, ztráta paměti
Hungarian Memória-vesztés, Memória elvesztése, Memória vesztés
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Post-traumatic amnestic disorder (C0855218)

Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
Italian Disturbo post-traumatico amnestico
Japanese 外傷後健忘障害, ガイショウゴケンボウショウガイ
English Post-traumatic amnestic disorder
Czech Posttraumatická amnestická porucha
Hungarian Post-traumás amnesticus zavar
Portuguese Perturbação de amnésia pós-traumática
Spanish Trastorno amnésico postraumático
Dutch posttraumatische amnestische stoornis
French Trouble amnésique post-traumatique
German postraumatische Amnesie
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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