Neurology Book


Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Aka: Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage, ICH, Cerebral Parenchymal Hemorrhage, Cerebral Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage
  1. See Also
    1. Cerebrovascular Accident
    2. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
  2. Background
    1. Refers to Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    2. Trauma also causes Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  3. Epidemiology
    1. Responsible for up to 6 to 20% of strokes in United States
  4. Pathophysiology
    1. Associated with small vessel Cerebrovascular Disease
    2. Most commonly affects the Basal Ganglia and Thalamus
  5. Causes: Primary Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage
    1. Background
      1. Primary Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage Accounts for 90% of cases
      2. Results from damaged small blood vessels due to Hypertension or Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)
      3. Damaged vessels are more prone to rupture which results in Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage
    2. Hypertension
      1. Most common cause in adults with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage
      2. Hypertension results in degenerative changes in small perforating arteries
      3. Typically affects Basal Ganglia, Thalamus, Brainstem, Cerebellum
    3. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)
      1. Most common cause of non-Traumatic lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage in older patients
      2. Beta amyloid accumulates in cortical blood vessels resulting in vascular weakening
      3. Typically affects lobar regions
  6. Causes: Secondary Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage
    1. Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)
      1. Most common cause of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in children
    2. Hemorrhagic conversion of Ischemic Stroke
    3. Septic cerebral embolism
    4. Intracranial Mass
    5. Anticoagulants or Thrombolytics
    6. Coagulopathy
    7. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
    8. Encephalitis (e.g. HSV Encephalitis)
    9. Stimulant Drugs of Abuse (e.g. Cocaine, Methamphetamine)
    10. MoyaMoya
    11. Mycotic aneurysm rupture
    12. Vasculitis
  7. Risk Factors:
    1. Tobacco Smoking
    2. Strenuous activity
    3. Oral Anticoagulants (especially Warfarin)
    4. Hypertension
    5. Heavy Alcohol use (>30 drinks/month or binge drinking)
    6. Increasing age
      1. Risk doubles every 10 years after age 35 years
  8. Symptoms
    1. Severe Headache
    2. Vomiting
    3. Decreased Level of Consciousness
      1. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) <=12 in 60% of presentations
      2. Deterioration occurs in transport or with emergency department in 50% of patients
  9. Signs
    1. Focal and gradually progressive presentation of neurologic deficits developing over minutes to hours
    2. Hemiplegia
    3. Aphasia
  10. Labs
    1. Fingerstick Blood Sugar
    2. Complete Blood Count with Platelet Count
    3. Prothrombin Time (PT) or INR
    4. Partial Thromboplastin Time
    5. Troponin
    6. Electrocardiogram
  11. Imaging
    1. CT Head
    2. CTA Head and Neck
      1. Spot Sign (extravasation of contrast in an expanding Hematoma)
    3. Consider CT Venogram
    4. Consider MRI in stable patients
  12. Grading
    1. Intracerebral Hemorrhage Score
  13. Precautions
    1. Cerebellar bleeding can rapidly deteriorate
  14. Management: General
    1. Similar overall management as for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)
      1. Exceptions include aneurysm specific management and Blood Pressure targets
    2. ABC Management
      1. Endotracheal Intubation is frequently needed due to decreased GCS, aspiration risk
    3. Correct coagulation deficits
      1. See Emergent Reversal of Anticoagulation
    4. Blood Pressure Management
      1. Opioid Analgesics for Headache may help to control Blood Pressure
      2. Blood Pressure target in ICH appears to be <180 mmHg (instead of <140 target used for SAH)
      3. Control Blood Pressure while still maintaining Cerebral Perfusion Pressure
      4. Labetalol, Clevidipine and Nicardipine are most often used to control Blood Pressure
      5. Qureshi (2016) N Engl J Med 375(11):1033-43 [PubMed]
    5. Manage Seizures
      1. See Status Epilepticus
      2. Routine Seizure Prophylaxis is not recommended unless Seizure occurs
    6. Early Neurosurgery Consultation
      1. Ventricular drainage indications
        1. Hydrocephalus
      2. Surgical drainage indications
        1. Hydrocephalus
        2. Increasing intraparenchymal Hemorrhage
        3. Clinical worsening
      3. Craniectomy indications
        1. Coma
        2. Large intracerebral Hematoma with midline shift
        3. Refractory high Intracranial Pressure
      4. Secondary lesion indications for neurosurgical intervention
        1. Hemorrhagic Brain Tumor
        2. Arteriovenous Malformation or fistula
        3. Cavernous malformation
        4. Distal or Mycotic aneurysm
        5. Moyamoya
    7. Disposition
      1. Admit to Intensive Care unit or dedicated stroke unit
  15. Management: Traumatic intraparenchymal Hemorrhage
    1. Expect Traumatic intraparenchymal Hemorrhage to stabilize within first 48 hours
    2. Neurosurgical decompression indications
      1. Neurologic deterioration or GCS <8
      2. Contusion volume >50 ml
      3. Frontal or temporal Contusion >20 ml
      4. Midline shift >5 mm
      5. Loss of subarachnoid space (basal cistern effacement)
      6. Bullock (2006) Neurosurgery 58(3 Suppl): S25-46 [PubMed]
  16. Prognosis
    1. Higher mortality with decreasing alertness on presentation
    2. One year survival: 40%
  17. References
    1. Dreis (2020) Crit Dec Emerg Med 34(7):3-21
    2. Burgess and Stowens (2014) Crit Dec Emerg Med 28(5): 2-13
    3. Kreutzer and Maldonado (2022) Crit Dec Emerg Med 36(7): 16-7
    4. Rordorf and McDonald in Kasner (2014) Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Uptodate, accessed 5/8/2014
    5. Gross (2019) JAMA 321(13): 1295-303 [PubMed]

Cerebral Hemorrhage (C2937358)

Definition (NCI_FDA) Hemorrhage into the cerebrum. See also Stroke Syndrome.(CDRH)
Definition (NCI) Bleeding within the cerebrum.
Definition (CSP) bleeding or escape of blood into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages.
Definition (MSH) Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Concepts Pathologic Function (T046)
MSH D002543
ICD9 431
ICD10 I61, I61.9
SnomedCT 274100004, 1508000, 155391006, 195163003, 266313001, 195173001, 155389003, 155394003
English Cerebral Hemorrhages, Hemorrhage, Cerebral, Hemorrhages, Cerebral, CEREBRAL HAEMORRHAGE, Intracerebral hemorrhage, CVA - Cerebrovascular accident due to intracerebral haemorrhage, CVA - Cerebrovascular accident due to intracerebral hemorrhage, CVA - cerebrovascular accid due to intracerebral haemorrhage, CVA - cerebrovascular accid due to intracerebral hemorrhage, CVA -intracerebral haemorrhage, CVA -intracerebral hemorrhage, Cerebral parenchym haemorrhage, Cerebral parenchym hemorrhage, Cerebral parenchymal haemorrhage, Cerebral parenchymal hemorrhage, Intracerebral haemorrhage, Intracerebral haemorrhage NOS, Intracerebral hemorrhage NOS, Stroke - intracerebral haem'ge, Stroke due to intracerebral haemorrhage, Stroke due to intracerebral hemorrhage, Intracerebral haemorrhage, unspecified, Intracerebral hemorrhage, unspecified, Parenchymatous Hemorrhage, Cerebral haemorrhage NOS, Cerebral hemorrhage NOS, ICH - Intracerebral haemorrhag, ICH - Intracerebral haemorrhage, ICH - Intracerebral hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage (diagnosis), intracerebral hemorrhage, Intracerebral bleed, Haemorrhage cerebral, Intra-cerebral haemorrhage, Hemorrhage cerebral, Intra-cerebral hemorrhage, Hemorrhage intracerebral, Brain Hemorrhage, Cerebral, Brain Hemorrhages, Cerebral, Cerebral Brain Hemorrhage, Cerebral Brain Hemorrhages, Hemorrhage, Cerebral Brain, Hemorrhages, Cerebral Brain, Cerebral Parenchymal Hemorrhage, Cerebral Parenchymal Hemorrhages, Hemorrhage, Cerebral Parenchymal, Hemorrhages, Cerebral Parenchymal, Parenchymal Hemorrhage, Cerebral, Parenchymal Hemorrhages, Cerebral, Cerebrum Hemorrhage, Cerebrum Hemorrhages, Hemorrhage, Cerebrum, Hemorrhages, Cerebrum, Hemorrhage, Intracerebral, Hemorrhages, Intracerebral, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Intracerebral Hemorrhages, Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), Cerebral Hemorrhage [Disease/Finding], Cerebral Hemorrhage, Rupture;blood vessel;brain, intracerebral hemorrhages, Haemorrhage;cerebral, intracerebral haemorrhage, Brain bleeding, brain haemorrhage, brain hemorrhage, intracerebral bleed, intracerebral hematoma, cerebral hemorrhages, cerebral haemorrhages, Cerebral bleeding, Cerebral hemorrhages, Intracerebral haematoma, CVA - cerebrovascular accident due to intracerebral hemorrhage, Cerebral hemorrhage NOS (disorder), CVA - cerebrovascular accident due to intracerebral haemorrhage, Intracerebral hemorrhage NOS (disorder), Haemorrhage intracerebral, Cerebral haemorrhage (disorder), Cerebral haemorrhage NOS (disorder), Intracerebral hemorrhage (disorder), Intracerebral hematoma, Cerebral parenchymal hemorrhage (disorder), CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE, CEREBRAL BLEEDING, BLEEDING, CEREBRAL, HEMORRHAGE, CEREBRAL, Cerebral hemorrhage, Cerebral haemorrhage, Cerebral hemorrhage (disorder), hemorrhage; intracerebral, intracerebral; hemorrhage, Intracerebral hemorrhage, NOS, Hemorrhage, cerebral, Rupture of blood vessel in brain, Hemorrhage of cerebrum, cerebral hemorrhage, Hemorrhage;cerebral, rupture of blood vessels in the brain, cerebral haemorrhage
French HEMORRAGIE CEREBRALE, Hémorragie au niveau cérébral, Saignement intracérébral, Saignement cérébral, Hémorragie cérébrale, Hémorragie du parenchyme cérébral, Hémorragie intra-cérébrale, Hémorragie intracérébrale, Hémorragie intraparenchymateuse du cerveau
Portuguese HEMORRAGIA CEREBRAL, Hemorragia intracerebral, Hemorragia no Cérebro, Sangramento cerebral, Hemorragia cerebral, Hemorragia Cerebral Parenquimatosa, Hemorragia Cerebral, Hemorragia Encefálica Cerebral, Hemorragia Intracerebral
Spanish HEMORRAGIA CEREBRAL, Hemorragia intracerebral, Sangrado intracerebral, Hemorragia en el Cerebro, hemorragia intracerebral, Sangrado cerebral, hemorragia cerebral, SAI, Cerebral haemorrhage NOS, ruptura de vaso sanguíneo cerebral, hematoma intracerebral, hemorragia cerebral, SAI (trastorno), hematoma intraparenquimatoso, hemorragia intracerebral, SAI (trastorno), hemorragia intracerebral, SAI, hemorragia intraparenquimatosa, Cerebral hemorrhage NOS, hemorragia intracerebral (trastorno), hemorragia cerebral (trastorno), hemorragia cerebral, Hemorragia cerebral, Hemorragia Cerebral, Hemorragia Encefálica Cerebral, Hemorragia Intracerebral, Hemorragia Parenquimal Cerebral
Dutch bloeding intracerebraal, intracerebrale bloeding, bloeding cerebraal, hemorragie intracerebraal, bloeding; intracerebraal, intracerebraal; bloeding, Intracerebrale bloeding, niet gespecificeerd, cerebrale bloeding, Bloeding, cerebraal-parenchym-, Bloeding, cerebrale, Bloeding, hersen-, Cerebrale bloeding, Hersenbloeding, Intracerebrale bloeding
German Blutung, Gehirn, Blutung intrazerebral, intrazerebrale Blutung, Blutung, Großhirn-, BLUTUNG ZEREBRAL, Intrazerebrale Blutung, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Intrazerebrale Blutung, Hirnblutung, Zerebrale Blutung, Gehirnblutung, zerebrale, Hirnblutung, zerebrale, Großhirnblutung, Hämorrhagie, zerebrale, Intrazerebrale Hämorrhagie, Zerebrale Hämorrhagie, Zerebrale parenchymale Hämorrhagie
Italian Emoragia cerebrale, Emorragia cerebrale parenchimale, Emorragia intracerebrale, Sanguinamento cerebrale, Emorragia cerebrale
Japanese 脳内出血, 脳出血, ノウナイシュッケツ, ノウシュッケツ, 大脳出血, 大脳実質出血
Swedish Hjärnblödning
Czech přední mozek - hemoragie, Nitromozkové krvácení, Intracerebrální krvácení, Krvácení do mozku, Krvácení intracerebrální, Mozkové krvácení, přední mozek - krvácení, krvácení do předního mozku, intracerebrální krvácení do hemisféry, haemorrhagia cerebri
Finnish Aivoverenvuoto
Korean 뇌내출혈, 상세불명의 뇌내출혈
Polish Krwotok śródmózgowy, Wylew krwi do mózgu, Krwotok mózgowy, Krwotok wewnątrzmózgowy
Hungarian Intracerebralis haemorrhagia, Intracerebralis vérzés, Cerebralis vérzés, Agyvérzés
Norwegian Cerebral blødning
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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