Pulmonology Book



Aka: Histoplasmosis, Histoplasma capsulatum
  1. See Also
    1. Fungal Lung Infection
  2. Pathophysiology
    1. Etiology: Histoplasma capsulatum
    2. Transmission: Inhalation
    3. Sources (infection often with heavy cleaning of source)
      1. Soil contaminated with bird and bat droppings
      2. Old houses (especially attics)
      3. Farms (especially barns and chicken coops)
    4. Infection course
      1. Initial phase (controlled by Macrophages)
        1. Fungus spores inhaled into lung alveoli
        2. Travel to Lymph Nodes at hilum and mediastinum
        3. Spreads from lung, lymph to liver, Spleen, marrow
      2. Second phase (controlled by cellular Immunity)
        1. Occurs 10-14 days after spore inhalation
        2. Infected sites necrose, caseate, and fibrose
        3. Calcified Granulomas form within a few years
        4. Disseminated infection if cellular Immunity defect
    5. Risks for disseminated infection
      1. Infants and young children
      2. Intense exposure to airborne spores
      3. Immunocompromised patients
        1. HIV with CD4 <200
        2. Lymphoma
        3. Immunosuppressant medication (e.g. Corticosteroid)
  3. Epidemiology
    1. Consider in Immunocompromised patients
      1. Undifferentiated fever
      2. Pneumonia
      3. Mucocutaneous disease
    2. United States
      1. Incidence: 500,000 new cases per year
      2. Endemic Areas (Ohio and Mississippi river valleys)
        1. Southeast
        2. Mid-Atlantic
        3. Central States
      3. Endemic in some cities
        1. Indianapolis
        2. Kansas City
        3. Houston
  4. Symptoms and Signs: Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis
    1. Symptoms
      1. Most cases are asymptomatic or mild
      2. Fever
      3. Non-productive Cough
      4. Dyspnea
      5. Headache
      6. Malaise
      7. Diaphoresis
      8. Weight loss
    2. Signs
      1. Hepatomegaly
      2. Splenomegaly
      3. Adenopathy
      4. Erythema Nodosum
      5. Erythema Multiforme
  5. Symptoms and Signs: Chronic Pulmonary Histoplasmosis
    1. Exaggerated immune response to fungal Antigens
    2. Typical patient is middle aged white male with COPD
    3. Symptoms (Similar to Tuberculosis)
      1. Productive cough
      2. Fever
      3. Night Sweats
  6. Symptoms and Signs: Disseminated Histoplasmosis
    1. Most patients (80%) are Immunocompromised
    2. Symptoms
      1. Fever (most common)
      2. Headache
      3. Weight loss
      4. Cough (<50% of cases)
      5. Abdominal cramps, Diarrhea, Melena (rare)
    3. Signs
      1. Hepatomegaly
      2. Splenomegaly
      3. Lymphadenopathy
      4. Jaundice
      5. Ulcerative lesions in nose, mouth, Larynx (25%)
  7. Imaging: General
    1. Necrotizing Granulomata
    2. Chest XRay (see below)
    3. PET Scan is diagnostic
  8. Imaging: Chest XRay
    1. Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis
      1. Usually normal
      2. Hilar Adenopathy
      3. Pneumonitis involving lower lung fields
    2. Chronic Pulmonary Histoplasmosis
      1. Calcified fibronodular apical infiltrates
      2. Underlying Emphysematous changes
      3. No adenopathy
    3. Disseminated Histoplasmosis
      1. Discrete Pulmonary Nodules or miliary pattern
      2. Adenopathy rarely occurs
  9. Labs: Diagnosis
    1. Sputum Culture (Gold standard for definitive diagnosis)
      1. Requires 2-6 weeks of growth
      2. Test Sensitivity for disseminated Histoplasmosis: 85%
      3. Sensitivity chronic pulmonary Histoplasmosis: 85%
      4. Not sensitive for limited acute pulmonary disease
    2. Serologic Titers (positive if > 1:32)
      1. Sensitivity acute or chronic pulmonary disease: >98%
      2. Moderate sensitivity in disseminated disease: 71%
      3. False Negatives
        1. False Negatives in Immunocompromised
        2. False Negatives in first 6 weeks of infection
      4. False Positives
        1. Histoplasmosis Infection within last 5 years
        2. Other fungus cross reactivity
          1. Blastomyces
          2. Aspergillus
    3. Fungal staining of Bone Marrow or tissue histopathology
      1. Bone Marrow in disseminated disease: 75% sensitivity
      2. Difficult to differentiate from other organisms
        1. Candida glabrata
        2. Pneumocystis carinii
    4. Histoplasma Antigen testing (Urine and serum Antigens)
      1. High Test Sensitivity in disseminated disease (92%)
      2. Low sensitivity in acute and chronic pulmonary Histoplasmosis
      3. Useful for monitoring treatment outcomes
    5. Skin Test
      1. Useless in diagnosing acute disease
      2. High False Positive Rate in endemic areas
      3. High False Negative Rate in disseminated and chronic
  10. Labs: Disseminated Histoplasmosis
    1. Liver Function Test abnormalities
    2. Complete Blood Count: Pancytopenia
      1. Anemia
      2. Leukopenia
  11. Complications: Acute pulmonary Histoplasmosis
    1. Mediastinal Granuloma (Chest Pain, Hemoptysis)
    2. Pericarditis (Chest Pain, fever) - delayed response
    3. Arthritis (symmetric and Polyarticular)
  12. Course
    1. Chronic pulmonary Histoplasmosis
      1. 33% stabilize or improve spontaneously
  13. Management
    1. Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis
      1. Severe disease
        1. First 2 weeks
          1. Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg/day
          2. Prednisone 20 mg qd
        2. Next 12 weeks
          1. Itraconazole dosed as in mild to moderate disease
      2. Mild to moderate disease
        1. Itraconazole 200 mg qd to bid for 12 weeks
    2. Chronic Pulmonary Fibrosis
      1. Severe disease
        1. Start: Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg/day
        2. Next: Itraconazole as below for 12-24 months
      2. Moderate disease
        1. Itraconazole 200 mg PO qd to bid for 12-24 months
    3. Disseminated Histoplasmosis
      1. Severe disease
        1. Start: Amphotericin B 0.7 to 1.0 mg/kg/day
        2. Next: Itraconazole as below for 6-18 months
          1. Stop when urine and serum Antigen <4 units
      2. Moderate disease
        1. Itraconazole 200 mg PO qd to bid for 6-18 months
        2. Continue Itraconazole for life if HIV positive
  14. References
    1. Kurowski (2002) Am Fam Physician 66(12):2247-52 [PubMed]
    2. Wheat (2000) Clin Infect Dis 30:688-95 [PubMed]
    3. Mocherla (2001) Semin Respir Infect 16(2):141-8 [PubMed]

Histoplasmosis (C0019655)

Definition (CHV) a kind of fungal infection
Definition (CHV) a kind of fungal infection
Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold.) The fungus is common in the eastern and central United States. It grows in soil and material contaminated with bat or bird droppings. You get infected by breathing the fungal spores. You cannot get the infection from someone else.

Histoplasmosis is often mild, with no symptoms. If you do get sick, it usually affects your lungs. Symptoms include feeling ill, fever, chest pains, and a dry cough. In severe cases, histoplasmosis spreads to other organs; this is called disseminated disease. Disseminated disease is more common in infants, young children, seniors, and people with immune system problems.

Tests for histoplasmosis include blood or urine tests and tissue samples. Chest x-rays and CT scans may also help to diagnose it. Mild cases usually get better without treatment. Treatment of severe or chronic cases is with antifungal drugs.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Definition (NCI) A disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. It primarily affects the lungs but can also occur as a disseminated disease that affects additional organs. The acute respiratory disease has symptoms similar to those of a cold or flu and it usually resolves without treatment in healthy individuals. The disseminated form is generally fatal if untreated.
Definition (MSH) Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Definition (CSP) infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus Histoplasma; worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D006660
ICD9 115, 115.9
ICD10 B39, B39.9
SnomedCT 12962009, 266218008, 187063001, 187482000, 187056001, 187055002, 154408001
LNC LA10477-0
English Histoplasmoses, Histoplasmosis, unspecified, Unsp histoplasmosis infection, Unspecified histoplasmosis NOS, Unspecified histoplasmosis infection, [X]Histoplasmosis, unspecified, Histoplasmosis, histoplasmosis (diagnosis), histoplasmosis, Histoplasma infections, Histoplasmosis NOS, Infection histoplasmosis, Histoplasmosis, NOS, Histoplasmosis [Disease/Finding], histoplasmoses, Unspecified histoplasmosis NOS (disorder), Unspecified histoplasmosis infection (disorder), [X]Histoplasmosis, unspecified (disorder), Histoplasmosis (disorder), Histoplasma; infection, histoplasmosis; Darling, infection; Histoplasma, Darling; histoplasmosis, Darling
Italian Infezioni da histoplasma, Infezione da istoplasmosi, Istoplasmosi, non specificata, Istoplasmosi NAS, Istoplasmosi
Dutch histoplasmose NAO, histoplasmose, niet-gespecificeerd, histoplasmose-infectie, Darling; histoplasmose, Histoplasma; infectie, histoplasmose; Darling, infectie; Histoplasma, Histoplasmose, niet gespecificeerd, Histoplasma-infecties, histoplasmose, Histoplasmose
French Histoplasmose, non précisée, Infection à histoplasmose, Histoplasmose SAI, Infections à Histoplasma, Histoplasmose, Maladie de Darling
German Infektion durch Histoplasmose, Histoplasmose, unspezifisch, Histoplasmose NNB, Histoplasmose, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Histoplasma-Infektionen, Histoplasmose
Portuguese Histoplasmose NE, Infecções a Histoplasma, Histoplasmose
Spanish Histoplasmosis no especificada, Infección por histoplasma, Histoplasmosis NEOM, histoplasmosis no especificada (trastorno), [X]histoplasmosis, no especificada, histoplasmosis no especificada, SAI, histoplasmosis no especificada, histoplasmosis no especificada, SAI (trastorno), [X]histoplasmosis, no especificada (trastorno), Unspecified histoplasmosis infection, histoplasmosis, enfermedad de Darling, histoplasmosis (trastorno), Infecciones por histoplasma, Histoplasmosis
Japanese ヒストプラスマ症, ヒストプラスマ症、詳細不明, ヒストプラスマ症NOS, ヒストプラスマ感染症, ヒストプラスマ感染, ヒストプラスマショウショウサイフメイ, ヒストプラスマカンセン, ヒストプラスマショウNOS, ヒストプラスマカンセンショウ, ヒストプラスマショウ
Swedish Histoplasmos
Czech histoplazmóza, Blíže neurčená histoplazmóza, Histoplazmové infekce, Histoplazmová infekce, Histoplazmóza, Histoplazmóza NOS
Finnish Histoplasmoosi
Korean 상세불명의 히스토플라스마증, 히스토플라스마증
Polish Zakażenie Histoplasma capsulatum, Histoplazmoza, Choroba Darlinga
Hungarian histoplasmosis k.m.n., histoplasma, nem meghatározott, Histoplasma fertőzések, histoplasmosis, fertőzés, histoplasmosis
Norwegian Histoplasmose
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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