Infectious Disease Book


Primary Syphilis

Aka: Primary Syphilis, Primary Genital Syphilis, Chancre
  1. See Also
    1. Syphilis
    2. Sexually Transmitted Disease
    3. Primary Syphilis
    4. Secondary Syphilis
    5. Latent Syphilis
    6. Tertiary Syphilis
    7. Syphilitic Gumma
    8. Cardiovascular Syphilis
    9. Neurosyphilis
    10. Syphilis Testing
    11. Genital Ulcer
  2. Signs
    1. Solitary Chancre (hallmark of Primary Syphilis)
      1. Painless Papule ulcerates
      2. Indurated lesion with smooth base and firm border
      3. Multiple lesions may be present
    2. Chancre distribution
      1. Forms a Genital Ulcer in nearly all cases (may form on Cervix or perianally)
        1. Chancre may be difficult to visualize
        2. Men
          1. Distal penis involved in most cases
        3. Men and women
          1. Anal and rectal involvement occurs in both men and women
          2. Carefully examine the perianal area
        4. Women
          1. Typically affects vagina and Cervix
          2. Use a speculum and examine the vaginal mucosa
          3. Examine the introitus and between the labia
      2. Extragenital involvement (fingers, Oral Mucosa, nipples) in up to 5-7% of cases
    3. Chancre Course
      1. Chancre at 10 to 90 days after exposure (mean 21 days)
      2. Chancre heals within 3 to 6 weeks without scarring and without treatment
        1. With treatment, Chancres may resolve in days
    4. Nonsuppurative Regional Lymphadenopathy (uncommon)
      1. Follows Chancre development within 30 days and resolves over months
  3. Labs
    1. See Syphilis Testing
    2. Dark field exam of tissue sample may reveal Spirochetes
    3. Blood testing is often negative in Primary Syphilis
  4. Management
    1. See Syphilis
  5. References
    1. Green, Cohen, Billington (2016) Crit Dec Emerg Med 30(11): 4-10
    2. Mattel (2012) Am Fam Physician 86(5): 433-40 [PubMed]
    3. Ricco (2020) Am Fam Physician 102(2): 91-8 [PubMed]

Syphilitic chancre (C0007939)

Definition (MSH) The primary sore of syphilis, a painless indurated, eroded papule, occurring at the site of entry of the infection.
Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
MSH D002601
ICD10 A51.0
SnomedCT 266127002, 58433006
English Chancre, Chancres, Syphilitic chancre, Syphilitic chancre NOS, Chancre [Disease/Finding], primary syphilis, chancre syphilitic, chancres, chancre, syphilis primary, Primary syphilis - chancre, chancre; syphilitic
Dutch syfilitische venerische zweer, sjanker; syfilis, Sjanker
German syphilitischer Schanker, Schanker
Italian Ulcera venerea sifilitica, Sifiloma iniziale
Portuguese Cancro sifilítico, Cancro
Spanish Chancro sifilítico, chancro sifilítico, Chancro
Japanese 梅毒性下疳, バイドクセイゲカン
Swedish Schanker
Czech šankr, vřed tvrdý, Syfilitický šankr
Finnish Sankkeri
Polish Wrzód twardy, Szankier, Zmiana pierwotna w kile
Hungarian Syphilises ulcus durum
Croatian ČANKIR
French Chancre syphilitique
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Primary genital syphilis (C0017418)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD9 091.0
ICD10 A51.0
SnomedCT 58433006, 186847001
English Genital syphilis (primary), Primary genital syphilis, Syphilis genital, primary genital syphilis, syphilis primary genital, primary genital syphilis (diagnosis), Genital chancre, Primary genital syphilis (disorder), genital; syphilitic, primary; syphilitic, genital, syphilis; genital, syphilis; primary, genital, Primary genital syphilis (disorder) [Ambiguous], Genital syphilis
Italian Sifilide genitale, Sifilide genitale (primaria)
Dutch genitale syfilis (primair), genitaal; syfilis, primair; syfilis, genitaal, syfilis; genitaal, syfilis; primair, genitaal, Primaire genitale syfilis, syfilis genitaal
French Syphilis génitale (primitive), Syphilis génitale
German Syphilis der Geschlechtsorgane (primaer), Primaerer syphilitischer Genitalaffekt, Syphilis der Geschlechtsorgane
Spanish Sífilis genital (primaria), chancro genital, sífilis genital primaria (concepto no activo), sífilis genital primaria (trastorno), sífilis genital primaria, Sífilis genital
Japanese 性器梅毒(第1期), 性器梅毒, セイキバイドクダイ1キ, セイキバイドク
Czech Syfilis genitálu, Syfilis genitálu (primární)
Korean 제1기 성기 매독
Hungarian genitalis syphilis, Genitalis syphilis (primaer)
Portuguese Sífilis genital
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Chancre (C0600049)

Concepts Pathologic Function (T046)
SnomedCT 84052006
English Chancre, chancre, Chancre (morphologic abnormality), Chancre, NOS
Dutch sjanker
French Chancre
German Schanker
Italian Complesso primario
Portuguese Cancro duro
Spanish Chancro, chancro (anomalía morfológica), chancro
Japanese 下疳, ゲカン
Czech Šankr
Hungarian Ulcus durum
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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