Infectious Disease Book

Bacterial Infections

  • Childhood Acute Neuropsychiatric Symptoms


Childhood Acute Neuropsychiatric Symptoms

Aka: Childhood Acute Neuropsychiatric Symptoms, PANDAS, Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Post-streptococcal Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder, Streptococcal Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorder
  1. Definition
    1. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders
    2. Associated with Streptococcal Infections
  2. Precautions
    1. Controversial diagnosis
      1. Streptococcal infection is common
      2. Tic Disorders are common
      3. When both are present, is it simply coincidence?
    2. Avoid testing ASO Titers (rarely helpful)
    3. Even if diagnosis is made, there is no treatment
      1. Even daily Penicillin does not alter Tic Disorder
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. Multiple infectious, toxic and metabolic causes have been proposed
      1. Initially thought specific to autoantibody formation in response to streptococcal infection
        1. Associated with Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus
    2. Autoantibodies stimulate basal ganglia Autoimmune Disease
    3. Similar mechanism as Rheumatic Fever and PSGN
  4. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Rheumatic Fever
      1. Jones Criteria include Sydenham Chorea in addition to carditis, Polyarthritis, Erythema Marginatum, skin Nodules
  5. Associated conditions
    1. See Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    2. See Tic Disorder
    3. Sydenham's Chorea
    4. Rheumatic Fever
  6. Diagnosis: Criteria (all 5 criteria need to be present)
    1. Psychiatric illness
      1. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
      2. Tic Disorder
    2. Prepubertal symptom onset
    3. Acute, severe onset with symptom exacerbations
    4. Neurologic abnormalities
      1. Example: Choreiform movements
    5. Exacerbation follows Group A streptococcal infection
  7. Management
    1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
    2. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
    3. Other agents directed at autoimmune response have been used
      1. Corticosteroids
      2. IV Immunoglobulin
      3. Plasmaphoresis
  8. References
    1. Farhood (2016) Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 89:149-53 [PubMed]
    2. Maness (2018) Am Fam Physician 97(8): 517-22 [PubMed]
    3. Singer (2012) J Pediatr 160(5): 725-31 [PubMed]

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