Infectious Disease Book



Aka: Sulfonamide, Bactrim, Sulfatrim, Co-trimoxazole, Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole, Septra, TMP-SMZ
  1. See Also
    1. Sulfonamide Allergy
  2. Indications
    1. Urinary Tract Infection
    2. Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis and treatment
  3. Contraindications
    1. Avoid in infant under age 2 months
    2. Sulfonamide Allergy
  4. Adverse Effects: General
    1. Allergic Reaction or Anaphylaxis
      1. See Sulfonamide Allergy
    2. Bone Marrow suppression (Agranulocytosis)
    3. Steven's Johnson Syndrome
    4. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
    5. Hyperkalemia
      1. Related to trimethoprim component
      2. Higher risk with underlying Renal Insufficiency
      3. Exacerbated by ACE Inhibitor, Angiotensin Receptor Blocker, and Potassium supplements
  5. Adverse Effects: HIV patients (40-60% within 3 weeks)
    1. Hepatitis
    2. Neutropenia
    3. Anemia
    4. Hyponatremia
    5. Hyperkalemia (6% of patients, esp. elderly)
    6. Nausea or Vomiting
    7. Rash
    8. Fever
  6. Drug Interactions
    1. Other drugs decrease Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole levels
      1. Rifampin
    2. Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole increases other drug levels
      1. Phenytoin (Dilantin)
      2. Methotrexate
      3. Warfarin
        1. Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole increases Warfarin effects and may result in up to a 3 fold increase in INR
        2. Monitor INR and plan 25-50% Warfarin dose reduction while on Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole
    3. Hyperkalemia risk
      1. Increased risk with ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, Spironolactone
      2. Higher risk with age >65 years, Renal Insufficiency, Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Failure
      3. Significantly increased rate of hospitalization and sudden death
      4. Avoid Septra use for longer than three days with these agents and comorbidities in age >65 years
      5. Consider alternative antibiotics, holding antihypertensive or recheck Serum Potassium in 4-5 days
      6. Fralick (2014) BMJ 349:g6196 +PMID:25359996 [PubMed]
    4. References
      1. Tarascon Pharmacopoeia, accessed online 8/8/2014
      2. (2014) Presc lett 21(8): 47
  7. Precautions
    1. Prolonged use may cause very severe adverse reactions
    2. Follow CBC in prolonged use
    3. Hyperkalemia risk (especially in Renal Insufficiency)
  8. Preparations
    1. Double Strength (DS)
      1. Trimethoprim 160 mg
      2. Sulfamethoxazole 800 mg
    2. Single Strength (SS)
      1. Trimethoprim 80 mg
      2. Sulfamethoxazole 400 mg
    3. Pediatric Suspension (40/200 per 5 ml)
      1. Trimethoprim 40 mg per 5 ml
      2. Sulfamethoxazole 200 mg per 5 ml
  9. Dosing: Directions (regarding Sulfonamide component)
    1. Take on an empty Stomach
    2. Take more than 1 hour before or two hours after food
  10. Dosing: Children (Using 40/200 per 5 ml suspension)
    1. Treatment
      1. Dose 8 mg/kg/day of TMP component PO divided bid
      2. For each 10 kg weight, dose 5 ml suspension bid (up to maximum of 20 ml/dose)
      3. Examples
        1. Age 2 months (5 kg): 2.5 ml orally twice daily
        2. Age 1 year (10 kg): 5.0 ml orally twice daily
        3. Age 3 years (15 kg): 7.5 ml orally twice daily
        4. Age 5 years (20 kg): 10 ml orally twice daily
    2. Prophylaxis of Urinary Tract Infections
      1. Dose: 4 mg/kg/day of Trimethoprim dosed once daily
      2. Avoid use with marked Hyperbilirubinemia
  11. Dosing: Adults
    1. Standard: 1 DS tablet orally twice daily
    2. Cellulitis: 1-2 DS tablet orally twice daily
  12. Dosing: Renal Insufficiency
    1. Creatinine Clearance: 15-30 ml/min
      1. Decrease Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole dose by 50%
    2. Creatinine Clearance: <15 ml/min
      1. Avoid the use of Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole
    3. References
      1. Tarascon Pharmacopoeia, accessed online 8/8/2014
  13. Dosing: HIV
    1. Pneumocystis: PO or IV (15 mg/kg of trimethoprim/day)
Medication Costs
sulfatrim (on 5/17/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Pharmacy Drug pricing)
FPNotebook does not benefit financially from showing this medication data or their pharmacy links. This information is provided only to help medical providers and their patients see relative costs. Insurance plans negotiate lower medication prices with suppliers. Prices shown here are out of pocket, non-negotiated rates. See Needy Meds for financial assistance information.

Bactrim (C0591139)

Definition (CHV) brand name of an antibiotic
Definition (CHV) brand name of an antibiotic
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D015662
German Bactrim
English bactrim [brand name], bactrim, Bactrim
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Septra (C0699595)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D015662
German Septra
English septra, Septra
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Sulfatrim (C0723514)

Concepts Organic Chemical (T109) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
English Sulfatrim, sulfatrim
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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