Infectious Disease Book

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First Generation Cephalosporins

Aka: First Generation Cephalosporins, Cefazolin, Cefadroxil, Duricef, Ancef
  1. See Also
    1. Cephalosporin
    2. Cephalexin (Keflex)
  2. Indications
    1. Effective alternative to Penicillins
    2. Covers Gram Positive Cocci
    3. Covers some Gram Negative Bacilli (least coverage of the Cephalosporins)
    4. Clinical Conditions
      1. Skin and Soft Tissue Infection
      2. Streptococcal Pharyngitis
      3. Simple Urinary Tract Infections (Acute Cystitis)
      4. Not indicated for Otitis Media (inadequate coverage due to resistance)
  3. Mechanism: Activity Spectrum
    1. Good Gram Positive Cocci Coverage
      1. Streptococcus
      2. Staphylococcus
    2. Modest EKP Gram Negative Bacteria covered
      1. Escherichia coli
      2. Klebsiella
      3. Proteus
  4. Contraindications: Relative
    1. MRSA
    2. Enterococcus
    3. Enterobacter
    4. Proteus Vulgaris
    5. Morganella marganii
    6. Pseudomonas
    7. Acinebacter calcoaceticus
  5. Preparations: Oral
    1. Directions
      1. May take with or without food
    2. Cephalexin (Keflex)
      1. Adult: 250 to 500 mg orally 4 times daily
      2. Child: 25 to 50 mg/kg/day divided 4 times daily
    3. Cefadroxil (Duricef)
      1. Adult: 1 to 2 grams/day divided qd to bid
      2. Child: 30 mg/kg/day divided bid
  6. Preparations: Parenteral - Cefazolin (Ancef)
    1. Adult: 0.5 to 1.5 grams IM or IV every 6-8 hours
    2. Child
      1. Standard: 25 to 50 mg/kg/day divided q6-8 hours
      2. Severe Infection: 100 mg/kg/day divided q6-8 hours
      3. Maximum: 2 grams per dose
  7. Resources
    1. Cephalexin (DailyMed)
      1. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5681d4d2-9b67-4cac-9b94-8368f9978231
Medication Costs
cefadroxil (on 5/17/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Pharmacy Drug pricing)
CEFADROXIL 250 MG/5 ML SUSP Generic $0.29 per ml
CEFADROXIL 500 MG CAPSULE Generic $0.25 each
CEFADROXIL 500 MG/5 ML SUSP Generic $0.35 per ml
FPNotebook does not benefit financially from showing this medication data or their pharmacy links. This information is provided only to help medical providers and their patients see relative costs. Insurance plans negotiate lower medication prices with suppliers. Prices shown here are out of pocket, non-negotiated rates. See Needy Meds for financial assistance information.

Cefadroxil (C0007538)

Definition (NCI) A semi-synthetic, beta-lactam, first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefadroxil binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
Definition (MSH) Long-acting, broad-spectrum, water-soluble, CEPHALEXIN derivative.
Concepts Antibiotic (T195) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D002434
SnomedCT 13414000, 372651006
LNC LP17101-4, MTHU005578
English 4 Hydroxycephalexin, 4-Hydroxycephalexin, Cefadroxil, Cephadroxyl, 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo(4.2.0)oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7-((amino(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl)amino)-3-methyl-8-oxo-, (6R-(6alpha,7beta(R*)))-, (6R,7R)-7-(((2R)-Amino(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl)amino)-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo(4.2.0)oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic Acid, cefadroxil, CEFADROXIL, Cefadroxil [Chemical/Ingredient], cephadroxyl, Cefadroxil Monohydrate, Cefadroxil (product), Cefadroxil (substance)
Swedish Cefadroxil
Czech cefadroxil
Finnish Kefadroksiili
Italian 4-Idrossi cefalessina, Cefadrossil
Russian TSEFADROKSIL, ЦЕФАДРОКСИЛ
Japanese セファドロキシル
Polish Cefadroksyl
Spanish cefadroxilo (producto), cefadroxilo (sustancia), cefadroxilo, Cefadroxilo
French Céfadroxil
German Cefadroxil
Portuguese Cefadroxila
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Cefazolin (C0007546)

Definition (NCI) A beta-lactam antibiotic and first-generation cephalosporin with bactericidal activity. Cefazolin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
Definition (MSH) A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
Concepts Antibiotic (T195) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D002437
SnomedCT 323932006, 81088002, 387470007
LNC LP16066-0, MTHU005579
English Cefazolin, Cephazolin, 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo(4.2.0)oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 3-(((5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)thio)methyl)-8-oxo-7-((1H-tetrazol-1-ylacetyl)amino)-, (6R-trans)-, (6R,7R)-3-(((5-Methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)thio)methyl)-8-oxo-7-(2-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)acetamido)-5-thia-1-azabicyclo(4.2.0)oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic Acid, Cefazolin [Chemical/Ingredient], cephazolin, ceFAZolin, CEFAZOLIN, cefazolin, Cephazolin (product), Cephazolin (substance)
Swedish Cefazolin
Czech cefazolin
Finnish Kefatsoliini
Russian TSEFAZOLIN, ЦЕФАЗОЛИН
Japanese セファゾリン, セファゾリンナトリウム
Polish Cefazolina
Spanish cefazolina (producto), cefazolina (sustancia), cefazolina, Cefazolina
French Céfazoline
German Cefazolin, Cephazolin
Italian Cefazolina
Portuguese Cefazolina
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Ancef (C0700926)

Concepts Antibiotic (T195) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D002437
English ancef, Ancef
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Duricef (C0701890)

Concepts Antibiotic (T195) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D002434
English duricef, Duricef
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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