Infectious Disease Book

Acid Fast Bacteria


Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus

Aka: Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Group A Streptococcus, Streptococcus Pyogenes
  1. Epidemiology
    1. Group A Streptococcus results in 700 million infections and complicated by 500,000 deaths each year worldwide
      1. Carapetis (2005) Lancet Infect Dis 5(11): 685-94 [PubMed]
    2. Post-streptococcal complications have become uncommon in the United States
      1. Complications are more common in Sub-Sahara Africa, India, Australia, New Zealand
  2. Pathophysiology: General
    1. Anaerobic Gram Positive Cocci
    2. Humans are only reservoir
    3. Antibiotic management of Streptococcal Pharyngitis and decreases Rheumatic Fever risk
      1. However, does not prevent Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
    4. Autoimmune complications arise from Antibody formation against streptococcal M Protein
      1. Immune complex deposition in Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
      2. Antibody directed reaction in Acute Rheumatic Fever
      3. Autoantibody cross-reaction to Basal Ganglia in Sydenham Chorea
  3. Pathophysiology: Infections Caused by Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus
    1. Streptococcal Pharyngitis
    2. Streptococcal Bacteremia (Age under 3 years)
    3. Perianal Streptococcal Cellulitis
    4. Otitis Media
    5. Acute Sinusitis
    6. Peritonsillar Abscess
    7. Bacterial Pneumonia
    8. Toxic Shock Syndrome
    9. Bacterial Meningitis
    10. Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis (SBE)
    11. Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Cellulitis
    12. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection
    13. Scarlet Fever
  4. Complications
    1. Poststreptococcal Reactive Arthritis
      1. Onset 1-2 weeks after streptococcal infection
      2. Severe and prolonged Arthritis
        1. Contrast with Rheumatic Fever associated Arthritis
    2. Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis
    3. Childhood Acute Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (or PANDAS)
    4. Guttate Psoriasis
    5. Sydenham's Chorea
    6. Rheumatic Fever
    7. Henoch Schonlein Purpura
  5. References
    1. Maness (2018) Am Fam Physician 97(8): 517-22 [PubMed]

Streptococcus pyogenes (C0038411)

Definition (NCI_CDISC) Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Streptococcus pyogenes.
Definition (NCI) A species of facultatively anaerobic, Gram positive, cocci shaped bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes. This species is beta hemolytic, Lancefield group A, pyrrolidonylarylamidase, and arginine deaminase positive and catalase negative. It can ferment salicin, rhamnose, and trehalose but not sorbitol, or ribose. S. pyogenes is found on normal human skin but can act as a pathogen causing streptococcal pharyngitis, acute rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, skin infections, acute glomerulonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis.
Definition (CSP) species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans; it is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause scarlet fever and rheumatic fever; virulent strains penetrate deep into the body, with catastrophic results; it has been demonstrated that invasive streptococcus A infections can trigger a toxic shock syndrome, myositis, or destroy the sheath that covers the muscle, necrotizing fasciitis.
Definition (MSH) A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Concepts Bacterium (T007)
MSH D013297
SnomedCT 302594001, 67297007, 80166006
LNC LP15188-3, MTHU002582, LA20992-6
English Streptococcus Group A, Streptococcus group A, STREP PYOGENES, STREP GROUP A, Streptococc Lancefield group A, Streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus group A, S. pyogenes, Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus group, pyogenes s, pyogenes streptococcus, strep pyogenes, group streptococcus, streptococcus group a, pyogenes s., pyogenes strep, s. pyogenes, group a streptococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes Rosenbach 1884, STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES, streptococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus scarlatinae, Streptococcus erysipelatos, Streptococcus hemolyticus, Streptococcus scarlatinae, Streptococcus, group A (organism), Streptococcus Lancefield group A (organism), GROUP A BETA-HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES, Group A streptococcus, Streptococcus, group A, Streptococcus pyogenes (organism), Streptococcus Lancefield group A, group A Streptococcus
French Streptococcus groupe A, Streptocoque du groupe A, Streptocoque pyogène, Streptococcus pyogenes
Swedish Streptococcus pyogenes
Czech Streptococcus pyogenes
Finnish Streptococcus pyogenes
Japanese 連鎖球菌-A群, 化膿性連鎖球菌, A群レンサ球菌, 化膿レンサ球菌, 化膿連鎖球菌, ストレプトコッカス・ピオゲネス, A群連鎖球菌, ストレプトコッカスA群, 化膿性レンサ球菌
Italian Streptococco del gruppo A, Streptococcus pyogenes
Polish Streptococcus pyogenes, Paciorkowce ropne
Spanish estreptococo, grupo A, Streptococcus, grupo A, Streptococcus, grupo A (concepto no activo), Streptococcus Lancefield, grupo A (organismo), Streptococcus Lancefield, grupo A, Bacterias Comedoras de Carne, Streptococcus pyogenes (organismo), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus Grupo A
Portuguese Streptococcus Grupo A, Streptococcus do Grupo A, Streptococcus pyogenes
German Streptococcus Gruppe A, Streptococcus pyogenes
Dutch Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcusgroep A, Streptokokkengroep A, ß-hemolytische streptokokkengroep A
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, group A (C1541907)

Concepts Bacterium (T007)
SnomedCT 413643004
English Streptococcus group A, GAS, Group A Strep, Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, Beta-haemolytic Streptococcus, group A, Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, group A (organism), Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, group A
Spanish Streptococcus beta-hemolítico del grupo A (organismo), Streptococcus beta-hemolítico del grupo A
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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