Hematology and Oncology Book


Bleeding Disorder

Aka: Bleeding Disorder, Bleeding Diathesis, Abnormal Bleeding
  1. See Also
    1. Clotting Pathway
    2. ISTH Bleeding Assessment Tool (ISTH-BAT)
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Bleeding Gums, Epistaxis and easy bruisability are common in healthy patients (occurs in up to 45%)
    2. Menorrhagia is very common in women (5-10%)
      1. Bleeding Disorders contribute to up to 29% of Menorrhagia cases (esp. Von Willebrand Disorder)
  3. History: Symptoms or clinical clues
    1. Critical Illness or hospitalization
      1. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
      2. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
    2. Acute Diarrhea (E. coli 0157:H7)
      1. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
    3. Upper Respiratory Infection (esp. Streptococcal Pharyngitis)
      1. Henoch Schonlein Purpura
    4. Chronic Bleeding Disorder
      1. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
      2. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
        1. Hypermobile joints
      3. Von Willebrand Disease
        1. Menorrhagia (most common), recurrent Epistaxis or Gingival Bleeding
        2. Often delayed diagnosis with normal basic coagulation labs (until Platelet closure time is checked)
      4. Hemophilia A (Factor VIII) or Hemophilia B (Factor IX) deficiency
        1. Hemoarthrosis or other soft tissue bleeding in males
      5. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome)
        1. Telangiectasias involving lips, Tongue, skin, nose and GI Tract
      6. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura
        1. Especially children (often following viral syndrome such as EBV, VZV or CMV)
    5. Night Sweats and weight loss
      1. Hematologic Malignancy (Leukemia, Myelodyspastic syndrome, Lymphoma)
    6. Malnutrition
      1. Alcoholic Liver Disease (Alcoholic Cirrhosis)
      2. Vitamin C Deficiency
      3. Vitamin K Deficiency
    7. Bruising
      1. Physical Abuse
      2. Purpura Simplex
        1. Women with Bruising on arms and upper thighs
      3. Senile Purpura
        1. Older adults with dark Bruises in areas of thin skin (esp. extensor arms)
    8. Pregnancy
      1. HELLP Syndrome
        1. Severe Preeclampsia with Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and Low Platelet Count
  4. History
    1. Screening Questions for congenital Bleeding Disorder
      1. ISTH Bleeding Assessment Tool (ISTH-BAT)
    2. Family History of Bleeding Disorder (e.g. Hemophilia, Von Willebrand Disease)
      1. Include second-degree relatives, and back several generations
      2. Negative Family History does not exclude inherited Bleeding Disorder
    3. Medications
      1. See Anticoagulant
      2. See Drug Induced Platelet Dysfunction
  5. Signs: Abnormal Bleeding (multiple sites)
    1. Nasopharynx
      1. Epistaxis
      2. Bleeding Gums
    2. Gastrointestinal
      1. Hematemesis
      2. Melana
    3. Gynecologic
      1. Menorrhagia
      2. Postpartum Hemorrhage
    4. Musculoskeletal
      1. Muscle Hematomas
      2. Hemarthrosis
    5. Skin
      1. Purpura
      2. Petechiae
    6. Trauma
      1. Excessive bleeding from minor wounds
      2. Excessive bleeding following surgery or dental procedures
      3. Intracerebral bleeding event
  6. Signs: Clinical Clues
    1. Spontaneous hemarthrosis, muscle Hemorrhage or retroperitoneal bleeding
      1. Congenital Bleeding Disorder
    2. Mucocutaneous bleeding (Petechiae, Epistaxis, Gingival Bleeding, GI Bleeding, GU Bleeding)
      1. Platelet Bleeding Disorder
    3. Hepatomegaly
      1. Liver disorder
    4. Splenomegaly
      1. Hematologic Malignancy
      2. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
  7. Causes
    1. Coagulation Disorder
      1. See Coagulation Bleeding Disorders
      2. See Coagulopathy in Pregnancy
    2. Platelet Disorders
      1. See Platelet Bleeding Disorders
      2. See Thrombocytopenia
      3. See Drug Induced Platelet Dysfunction
    3. Vascular Disorders
      1. See Blood Vessel Wall Bleeding Disorders
  8. Labs: Initial
    1. Complete Blood Count with Platelets
    2. Peripheral Blood Smear
    3. ProTime (PT) with INR
    4. Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
    5. Comprehensive metabolic panel (Liver Function Tests and Renal Function tests)
  9. Labs: Based on initial testing
    1. Normal PT, PTT, and Platelet Count/morphology
      1. Obtain labs
        1. Von Willebrand Factor Antigen
        2. Von Willebrand Factor Activity (risocetin Cofactor activity)
        3. Factor VIII Level
        4. AVOID Platelet Function Closure Time (PFCT, Platelet Function Analyzer-100)
          1. No longer recommended due to False Negatives in less than severe cases of Von Willebrand
      2. Abnormal labs
        1. Von Willebrand Disease (additional testing can identify type)
      3. Normal labs
        1. Refer to hematology for additional evaluation of Platelet function disorder
        2. May require light transmission aggregometry
    2. Partial Thromboblastin Time (PTT) abnormality and Normal PT/INR (Intrinsic Clotting Pathway Abnormal)
      1. PTT corrects with a PTT Mixing Study (patient plasma mixed 1:1 with normal plasma)
        1. Obtain Factor VIII, Factor IX, and Factor XI assays
        2. Consider Von Willebrand's testing if low Factor VIII
      2. PTT does not correct with a PTT Mixing Study (mixed with normal blood)
        1. Obtain Lupus Anticoagulant
        2. Obtain Factor VIII Inhibitor
    3. ProTime (PT) or INR abnormal and Normal PTT (Extrinsic Clotting Pathway Abnormal) - uncommon
      1. PT/INR corrects with Vitamin K Supplementation
        1. Replace Vitamin K as needed
        2. Assess for Malnutrition and malabsorption causes of Vitamin K Deficiency
      2. PT/INR does not correct with Vitamin K Supplementation
        1. Obtain Factor VII assay
    4. BOTH ProTime (PT/INR) and Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) Abnormal
      1. Causes
        1. Comorbid advanced liver disease
        2. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
        3. Anticoagulant use (Warfarin or Heparin)
        4. Combined Intrinsic Clotting Pathway and Extrinsic Clotting Pathway
      2. Labs
        1. Liver Function Tests
        2. Fibrinogen level
        3. Factor Assays
    5. Platelet abnormality
      1. See Platelet Bleeding Disorders
      2. See Drug Induced Platelet Dysfunction
      3. See Thrombocytopenia
  10. Management: Hematology Consultation indications
    1. Significant finding on testing
    2. Nondiagnostic results with high clinical suspicion
    3. Preoperative concern for Bleeding Disorder
  11. References
    1. Allen (2002) Pediatr Clin North Am 49: 1239-56 [PubMed]
    2. Ballas (2008) Am Fam Physician 77:1117-24 [PubMed]
    3. Neutze (2016) Am Fam Physician 93(4): 279-86 [PubMed]

Bleeding tendency (C1458140)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Normally, if you get hurt, your body forms a blood clot to stop the bleeding. For blood to clot, your body needs cells called platelets and proteins known as clotting factors. If you have a bleeding disorder, you either do not have enough platelets or clotting factors or they don't work the way they should.

Bleeding disorders can be the result of other diseases, such as severe liver disease. They can also be inherited. Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder. Bleeding disorders can also be a side effect of medicines.

Concepts Pathologic Function (T046)
SnomedCT 123329004, 78596001, 267562007, 64779008, 248250000
Italian Predisposizioni al sanguinamento, Predisposizione al sanguinamento
Dutch bloedingsneiging, diathese; hemorrhagie, hemorrhagie; diathese, bloedingsneigingen
French Syndrome hémorragique, Syndromes hémorragiques
German Blutungsneigung, Blutungsneigungen
Portuguese Tendência hemorrágica, Tendências hemorrágicas
Spanish Diátesis hemorrágica, diátesis hemorrágica - RETIRADO - (concepto no activo), diátesis hemorrágica - RETIRADO -, diátesis hemorrágica, trastorno hemorrágico, tendencia hemorrágica, diátesis hemorrágica (concepto no activo), tendencia al sangrado (entidad observable), tendencia al sangrado, Diátesis hemorrágicas
Japanese 出血傾向, シュッケツケイコウ
Czech Krvácivé stavy, Krvácivý stav
English Bleeding tendencies, Bleeding Disorders, Bleeding diathesis (disorder), Bleeding disorders, Bleeding diathesis, Bleeding disorder, Tendency to bleed, Tendency to bleed (observable entity), bleeding tendency, bleeding; diathesis, diathesis; bleeding, Bleeding diathesis -RETIRED-, Bleeding tendency, Disability due to bleed disord, bleeding disorder
Hungarian Vérzéshajlamok, vérzéses tendencia
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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