Hematology and Oncology Book

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Hemolytic Anemia Causes

Aka: Hemolytic Anemia Causes, Hemolysis Causes
  1. Causes: Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
    1. Warm Hemolysis (IgG mediated)
      1. Idiopathic Hemolytic Anemia (most common)
      2. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
      3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
      4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
      5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
      6. Drug-Induced Hemolytic Anemia
    2. Cold Hemolysis (IgM and complement mediated)
      1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
      2. Mycoplasma pneumonia or other infection
      3. Infectious Mononucleosis
      4. Lymphoma
      5. Idiopathic
      6. Tertiary Syphilis (IgG mediated)
      7. Acute Viral Infection (Mumps, Measles, IgG mediated)
  2. Causes: Mechanical Trauma
    1. See Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia
    2. Prosthetic Heart Valve
    3. ECMO
    4. Burn Injury
    5. Vasculitis
    6. Malignant Hypertension
    7. Eclampsia
    8. Renal graft rejection
    9. Giant Hemangioma
    10. Scleroderma
    11. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
    12. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
    13. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
    14. March Hemoglobinuria (Marathon runners)
  3. Causes: Miscellaneous Causes
    1. Hypersplenism
    2. Alloimmune Reaction
      1. Transfusion Reaction
      2. Rh Sensitization
    3. Direct toxic effects
      1. Malaria
      2. Babesia
      3. Bartonella
      4. Rickettsia
      5. Clostridium difficile
      6. Toxoplasmosis
      7. Envenomation (e.g. Brown Recluse Spider, pit vipers)
    4. RBC Membrane abnormalities
      1. Spur CellAnemia
        1. Anorexia Nervosa
        2. Cirrhosis
      2. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
      3. Hereditary Spherocytosis
    5. RBC Intracellular abnormalities
      1. Enzyme Defects (oxidative Hemolysis)
        1. G6PD Deficiency
        2. Pyruvate kinase deficiency
      2. Hemoglobinopathy
        1. Sickle Cell Anemia
        2. Thalassemia
  4. Causes: Newborn Hemolysis
    1. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Rh Sensitization)
    2. Hereditary Spherocytosis
    3. Inherited Hemoglobinopathy (Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia)
  5. References
    1. Phillips (2018) Am Fam Physician 98(6): 354-61 [PubMed]

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