Gynecology Book


Depo Provera

Aka: Depo Provera, Depot-Medroxyprogesterone, Depo-Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, DMPA
  1. Epidemiology
    1. Available since 1992 in USA (worldwide test since 1970)
    2. Historical Use: 30 Million users since 1960
    3. Current use: 3.5 million current users
  2. Pharmacology
    1. Depot-Medroxyprogesterone (DMPA)
    2. Dose of 150 mg lasts for 14-20 weeks
    3. Suppresses LH surge, and hence Ovulation
  3. Efficacy
    1. Ranked among most effective contraceptives
      1. Sterilization (Tubal Ligation, Vasectomy)
      2. Norplant (0.1 to 0.3% fail)
    2. More effective than Oral Contraceptive (1-3% failure)
  4. Precautions
    1. Pfizer labeling recommends maximum of 2 years of use
      1. Warning based on bone density loss (see below)
  5. Indications
    1. Noncompliance with Oral Contraceptive
    2. Ease of use with better contraceptive efficacy
    3. Sickle Cell Anemia (lowers sickle cell crises by 70%)
    4. Oral Contraceptive contraindicated
      1. Tobacco Abuse
      2. Hypertension
      3. Migraine Headache
      4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
      5. Hepatic Disease
      6. Prior Thromboembolism
      7. Sickle Cell (reduces sickling)
      8. Seizure Disorder
  6. Adverse Effects
    1. Spotting and breakthrough bleeding
      1. Most bleeding occurs in the first 3-4 months
      2. Bleeding is usually atrophic
      3. Evaluate excessive bleeding beyond 4 months
        1. See Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
        2. Rule-out cervical lesions
        3. Rule-out endometrial lesions
      4. Consider low dose supplemental Estrogen for 1-2 weeks
      5. Consider pharmacologic adjuncts
        1. Ibuprofen 800 mg PO tid for 1-2 weeks
        2. Supplemental Estrogen for 1-2 weeks
          1. Premarin 0.625 to 1.25 qd
          2. Ethinyl Estradiol 20 ug qd
          3. Estradiol (Estrace) 0.5 to 1 mg qd
      6. Consider low dose Oral Contraceptive for 2-3 months
        1. If above measures fail
      7. Do not increase Depo dose (lowers efficacy)
    2. Weight gain
      1. Weight gain often exceeds 3 pounds
      2. Weight gain may be persistent and excessive
      3. Depo Provera may not be best option for obese patient
    3. Future fertility
      1. Fertility returns 7-12 months after last Depo Provera
      2. Infertility beyond 12 months should be evaluated
    4. Adverse Lipid Effects
      1. Specific Effects
        1. Lowers HDL
        2. Raises LDL and Total Cholesterol
        3. No change in Triglycerides
      2. Avoid use in Coronary Artery Disease
      3. Avoid use in Hyperlipidemia
    5. Bone density
      1. FDA recommends limiting use to 2 years due to bone density effect
      2. Decreased bone density with over 1 year Depo Provera
        1. Associated with 2.74% mean bone loss
        2. Does not occur with Oral Contraceptives
        3. Berenson (2001) Obstet Gynecol 98:576-82 [PubMed]
      3. Bone changes appear to return to baseline after stopping Depo Provera
      4. Annual 1% bone loss (reversible up to 30 months)
        1. Scholes (2002) Epidemiology [PubMed]
      5. Caution for use in adolescents
        1. Maximize daily Calcium intake to 1500 mg
      6. References
        1. Scholes (2005) Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:139-44 [PubMed]
    6. Fibroid initiation (not substantiated)
    7. Headache
    8. Libido change
    9. Depressed mood
    10. Alopecia
  7. Conditions: Unrelated to Depo Provera use
    1. Hypertension
    2. Breast Cancer
    3. Cervical Dysplasia
  8. Benefits
    1. No effect on Lactation
    2. No increased risk of Venous Thromboembolism
    3. Mild anticonvulsant
      1. Consider as Contraception in Seizure Disorder
    4. Lowers the risk of Sickle Cell Anemia crises by 70%
      1. DeAbood (1997) Contraception [PubMed]
  9. Dosing
    1. Starting dosing
      1. Confirmation of Non-Pregnant State prior to Depo Provera administration
      2. Intramuscular (IM) Dosing
        1. Clinic administered 150 mg IM within first 5 days of normal period
      3. Subcutaneous (SQ) Dosing
        1. Clinician or self-administered Depo Provera 104 mg SQ
        2. Advantages over IM: Lower dose, smaller volume, smaller needle (and may be self administered)
        3. Subcutaneous use is FDA approved for clinician injection, and efficacy is similar to IM
        4. Self-administered SQ dosing is off FDA label use, but supported by CDC, WHO
          1. Online instructions are available for patients to self administer
        5. References
          1. Burke (2018) Lancet Glob Health 6(5): e568-78 [PubMed]
          2. Curtis (2021) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 70(20): 739-43 [PubMed]
          3. Kohn (2018) Contraception 97(3): 198-204 [PubMed]
    2. Repeat Dosing
      1. Confirmation of Non-Pregnant State if interval over 14 weeks between doses
      2. Repeat injections 84-98 days after last injection
    3. Bleeding Irregularity
      1. Consider Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID)
  10. Protocol: Switching between contraceptives
    1. Switching to Depo Provera from pill, patch, ring
      1. Use pill, patch, ring, or barrier protection for the first 7 days after Depo Provera injection
      2. Switch may be made before the scheduled end of use of the prior contraceptive
    2. Switching to pill, patch, ring or Implanon from Depo Provera
      1. Start the new contraceptive at least 15 weeks since the last Depo Provera injection
  11. References
    1. Earl (1994) Am Fam Physician 49(4): 891-4 [PubMed]
    2. Paradise (2022) Am Fam Physician 106(3):251-9 [PubMed]

N,N-dimethyl-4-anisidine (C0067376)

Concepts Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH C050795
English DMPA, N,N-dimethyl-4-anisidine, N,N-dimethyl-para-anisidine
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Depo-Provera (C0699700)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Steroid (T110)
MSH D017258
English Depo Provera, Depo-Provera Contraceptive, Depo-Provera Oncology, depo provera, provera depo, depo-provera, depo-provera contraceptive, depoprovera, DepoProvera, Depo-provera, Depo-Provera
Czech Depo-Provera
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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