Gastroenterology Book


Acute Pancreatitis

Aka: Acute Pancreatitis, Pancreatitis
  1. See Also
    1. Chronic Pancreatitis
  2. Causes
    1. See Pancreatitis Causes
    2. See Medication Causes of Pancreatitis
    3. Adult common causes
      1. Alcohol Abuse (35% of cases)
      2. Cholelithiasis (40% of cases)
    4. Children common causes
      1. Infection (e.g. Mumps, Viral Hepatitis, Coxsackievirus, Ascariasis, Mycoplasma)
      2. Abdominal Trauma (e.g. handlebar injury)
  3. Symptoms
    1. Abdominal Pain
      1. Mid-Epigastric Pain, Left Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain or Periumbilical Abdominal Pain
      2. Radiation into the chest or mid-back
      3. Worse with eating and drinking (especially fatty foods) and in supine position
      4. Boring pain that starts episodically and advances to become constant
      5. Pancreatitis may be painless in some cases (e.g. toxin-induced)
    2. Associated gastrointestinal symptoms
      1. Nausea or Vomiting
      2. Indigestion
      3. Abdominal Bloating, distention or fullness
      4. Clay-colored stool
    3. Other associated symptoms
      1. Decreased Urine Output
      2. Hiccups
      3. Tactile warmth
  4. Signs
    1. General
      1. Low grade fever
      2. Altered Mental Status (severe cases)
    2. Cardiopulmonary Exam
      1. Tachycardia
      2. Hypotension
      3. Hypoxemia (25%)
      4. Left basilar rales (Pleural Effusion)
    3. Abdominal Exam
      1. Abdominal tenderness and guarding in the upper quadrants
      2. Peritoneal signs may be present (e.g. abdominal rigidity or Rebound Tenderness
      3. Bowel sounds decreased
      4. Palpable upper abdominal mass
      5. Cullen's Sign (periumbilical discoloration with subcutaneous Ecchymosis and edema)
      6. Grey Turner's Sign (flank discoloration with Ecchymosis)
    4. Skin Exam
      1. Erythematous skin Nodules (Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis)
      2. Jaundice (severe cases)
  5. Labs
    1. Serum Lipase elevated (preferred first-line study)
      1. Serum Lipase >540-1000 U/L, depending on specific lab (>3 times normal)
        1. Test Sensitivity for Pancreatitis: 96% (and LR+ 30)
        2. Test Specificity for Pancreatitis: 96% (and LR- 0.03)
        3. Other conditions (e.g. Gastroenteritis, Diverticulitis) result in more mild Lipase elevations
      2. Returns to normal in 7-14 days
    2. Serum Amylase elevated
      1. Replaced by Serum Lipase, which has higher Test Sensitivity and Test Specificity
      2. Serum Amylase>360 U/L, depending on specific lab (>3 times normal)
        1. Test Sensitivity for Pancreatitis: 95% (and LR+ 21)
        2. Test Specificity for Pancreatitis: 95% (and LR- 0.05)
      3. Returns to normal in 48-72 hours
      4. Precautions
        1. Normal amylase does not exclude Pancreatitis
        2. Level of elevation does not predict disease severity
      5. Some clinicians obtain Serum Amylase and serum Lipase simultaneously on initial evaluation
        1. Expect both increased in Pancreatitis (question diagnosis if only 1 increased)
        2. Serum Lipase to amylase ratio >4 (and especially >5) strongly suggests Alcoholic Pancreatitis
    3. Serum Electrolytes
      1. Hypocalcemia (25%)
      2. Hyperglycemia
      3. Hypomagnesemia (Alcoholism)
      4. Hypophosphatemia (Alcoholism)
    4. Complete Blood Count (CBC)
      1. White Blood Cells increased to 15k-20k
      2. Hematocrit repeated within 2 hours of initial 2 L bolus is a marker of adequate initial fluids if <44%
    5. Fasting Triglycerides
      1. Hypertriglyceridemia (15%)
        1. Very severe Hypertriglyceridemia (>1000 mg/dl) is responsible for 2-4% of Pancreatitis cases
        2. Consider acute Serum Triglyceride lowering with Insulin Infusion, plasmapheresis
    6. Urinary trypsinogen-2 Level
      1. May help predict Pancreatitis severity
      2. Urinary trypsinogen-2 >50 ng/ml
        1. Test Sensitivity for Pancreatitis: 92% (and LR+ 13.1)
        2. Test Specificity for Pancreatitis: 93% (and LR- 0.09)
    7. Liver Function Tests
      1. Gallstone Pancreatitis
        1. Serum Bilirubin elevated
        2. Alkaline Phosphatase elevated
      2. Alcoholic Pancreatitis
        1. Aspartate Aminotransferase elevated (AST) increased more than Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
    8. Prognostic indicators
      1. Hypoalbuminemia
      2. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) elevated
      3. Venous Blood Gas (or Arterial Blood Gas)
      4. Serum Calcium level
      5. C-Reactive Protein
      6. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) if available
      7. Urinalysis
  6. Diagnostics
    1. Electrocardiogram
      1. May demonstrate non-specific ST segment abnormality or T Wave abnormality
      2. Evaluates differential diagnosis in undifferentiated Epigastric Pain (referred Chest Pain)
  7. Imaging: First-Line Studies
    1. Right Upper Quadrant Transabdominal Ultrasound (preferred imaging in early Pancreatitis to evaluate biliary tract)
      1. First-line study in Acute Pancreatitis evaluation (but limited by body habitus and overlying bowel gas)
      2. May demonstrate Pancreas enlargement or edema
      3. Evaluate for Cholelithiasis! (gallstone Pancreatitis is most common cause, and requires surgical management)
        1. Gallstone Test Sensitivity 87-98%
    2. CT Abdomen with contrast (preferred imaging later in Acute Pancreatitis to evaluate for complications)
      1. Consider in severe Abdominal Pain, pancreatic necrosis or when other complications are suspected
      2. Acute Pancreatitis typically shows peripancreatic inflammation and fat stranding (but may be absent early in course)
      3. Identifies pancreatic edema and necrosis as well as extrapancreatitc changes including fluid accumulation
      4. Test Sensitivity for severe Pancreatitis: 78% (and LR+ 5.57)
      5. Test Specificity for severe Pancreatitis: 86% (and LR- 0.26)
      6. Predicts and evaluates Pancreatitis complications, length of hospital stay and prognosis
        1. See CT Severity Index in Pancreatitis (Balthazar Computed Tomography Severity Index)
  8. Imaging: Cholangiography
    1. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)
      1. Consider in cases where ERCP not possible
      2. Similar efficacy to CT in identifying Pancreatitis
      3. Detects Common Bile Duct Stones in 81-100% of cases
        1. Negative Predictive Value: 98%
        2. Positive Predictive Value: 94%
        3. May miss Gallstones <4mm
    2. Endoscopic Ultrasonography
      1. Gallstone Test Sensitivity 100%, Specificity 91%
    3. ERCP Indications
      1. Evaluate atypical causes of Pancreatitis
        1. Microlithiasis
        2. Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction
        3. Pancreas divisium
        4. Pancreatic duct strictures
      2. Urgent intervention
        1. Biliary Sepsis
        2. Biliary obstruction and severe Pancreatitis
        3. Ascending Cholangitis
        4. Progressive Jaundice or Hyperbilirubinemia
  9. Imaging: Other studies
    1. Abdominal XRay (non-specific abnormalities in 50%)
      1. Total or partial ileus (Sentinel loop)
      2. Spasm of transverse colon
    2. MRI Abdomen
      1. Indications
        1. IV contrast contraindicated
        2. Unclear diagnosis
        3. Refractory Acute Pancreatitis course after 2-3 days of conservative management
      2. May better defining peripancreatic changes
      3. Pancreatitis Test Sensitivity 83%, Specificity 91%
      4. Test Sensitivity for Pancreatitis: 79%, and for severe Pancreatitis, 83%
      5. Test Specificity for Pancreatitis: 92%, and for severe Pancreatitis 91%
  10. Diagnosis: Atlanta Criteria (requires 2 of 3 findings)
    1. Symptoms suggestive of Pancreatitis (Epigastric Abdominal Pain, Vomiting, epigastric tenderness)
    2. Increase >3 fold over normal, the serum Lipase (>540-1000 U/L, depending on lab) or the Serum Amylase
    3. Characteristic imaging findings
  11. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Bowel perforation (peptic ulcer perforation)
    2. Acute Cholecystitis or Ascending Cholangitis
    3. Chronic Pancreatitis
    4. Acute Intestinal Obstruction
    5. Mesenteric Ischemia
    6. Renal Colic
    7. Myocardial Ischemia (Angina)
    8. Aortic Dissection
    9. Connective Tissue Disorders
    10. Pneumonia
    11. Gastric outlet obstruction
    12. Acute Hepatitis
    13. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    14. Pancreatic Cancer
    15. Tubo-Ovarian Abscess
  12. Evaluation: Severity scoring systems
    1. Ranson Criteria
    2. BISAP Score
    3. Revised Atlanta Criteria for Acute Pancreatitis Severity
    4. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II Score)
    5. Modified Glasgow Severity Criteria for Pancreatitis (Imrie Scoring System for Pancreatitis, PANCREAS Score)
    6. BALI Score
      1. Simple scoring system (4 criteria), but requires Interleukin-6 (IL-6) level
    7. CT Severity Index in Pancreatitis (Balthazar Computed Tomography Severity Index)
      1. Superior to Ranson Criteria and APACHE II Score in its predictive value
      2. Bollen (2012) Am J Gastroenterol 107(4): 612-9 [PubMed]
  13. Management: Emergency Department Approach
    1. Protocol Indications
      1. Suspected Acute Pancreatitis (e.g. Epigastric Abdominal Pain, Vomiting, abdominal tenderness to palpation)
    2. Initial evaluation confirms Pancreatitis diagnosis and identifies gallstone Pancreatitis (or Common Bile Duct Stone)
      1. Serum Lipase >3 times upper limit normal (threshold approaches 1000, depending on lab used)
      2. RUQ Ultrasound (preferred) or CT Abdomen (if severe Pancreatitis and delayed diagnosis)
    3. Initial Management
      1. Lactated Ringers (LR) 2 Liter bolus at 10 ml/kg/h, followed by LR at 250 ml/hour
        1. Most important initial single measure
        2. See fluid Resuscitation below regarding indications for additional fluid boluses
      2. Other measures
        1. Antiemetics (e.g. Ondansetron)
        2. Opioid Analgesics (e.g. Hydromorphone)
    4. Determine underlying cause
      1. Gallstone Pancreatitis
        1. Surgical consult for Cholecystectomy
        2. Suspected Common Bile Duct Stone (bile duct dilitation, increased Liver Function Tests)
          1. Obtain ERCP (preferred) or MRCP
      2. Alcoholic Pancreatitis
        1. Alcohol cessation
        2. Alcohol Withdrawal protocol
        3. Give Thiamine, Multivitamin, Folic Acid, Magnesium
      3. Hypertriglyceridemia (Serum Triglycerides >500)
        1. Evaluate for Diabetes Mellitus (e.g. Hemoglobin A1C)
        2. Very high Serum Triglycerides (>1000 mg/dl)
          1. Admit to ICU and aggressive Triglyceride lowering
          2. Early and aggressive Serum Triglyceride lowering is associated with better outcomes
          3. Insulin Infusion 0.25 units/kg/h with dextrose infusion unless hyperglycemic
          4. Plasmapheresis (consult nephrology) if Insulin Infusion is not effective or Pancreatitis is refractory
      4. Idiopathic Pancreatitis
        1. See Medication Causes of Pancreatitis
        2. Consult gastroenterology
        3. Consult pharmacy for medication causes
        4. Review patient history for toxin exposures
    5. Later evaluation and management
      1. Early initiation of oral clear fluids, low-fat full liquids and low residue soft-solids prevents bowel atrophy
    6. Disposition: Indications for discharge and outpatient management
      1. Non-toxic appearance
      2. Normal Vital Signs
      3. Tolerating oral intake
      4. Pain controlled on Oral Analgesics
      5. No serious cause of Acute Pancreatitis (e.g. gallstone Pancreatitis, severe Hypertriglyceridemia >1000)
  14. Management: Specific Measures
    1. Gastrointestinal rest
      1. Nothing by mouth for first 24 hours
      2. Parenteral Antacid
        1. H2 Blocker (e.g. Ranitidine) or
        2. Proton Pump Inhibitor (e.g. Pantoprazole)
      3. Transition back to oral intake
        1. Early oral intake is preferred
          1. Start within 24 hours of admission (or of Cholecystectomy or other procedure)
          2. Re-initiate oral clear liquids, then
          3. Advance to low fat full liquids, then
          4. Advance to low fat, low-residue, soft solid diet
        2. Older guidelines recommended delayed oral intake
          1. Previously waited until pain well controlled without Opioid Analgesics (typically day 3-6)
      4. Consider nasojejunal Enteral Nutrition if no oral intake within first 48 hours
        1. Preferred over parenteral nutrition
          1. Decreased secondary infections
          2. Surgical interventions
          3. Shorter hospital stays
        2. May not be tolerated in severe ileus or very low oncotic pressure
        3. Marik (2004) BMJ 328:1407-10 [PubMed]
    2. Intravenous hydration
      1. Early aggressive intravenous hydration speeds recovery in even mild Acute Pancreatitis
        1. Buxbaum (2017) Am J Gastroenterol 112(5):797-803 [PubMed]
      2. Initial: 2 L (or 20 ml/kg) Lactated Ringers at 5-10 ml/kg/hour
        1. Lactated Ringers is preferred in Acute Pancreatitis (decreased systemic inflammation)
        2. Consider Normal Saline instead if Hypercalcemia is present
        3. Wu (2011) Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 9(8):710-7 [PubMed]
      3. Next: Fluid Resuscitation up to 250 ml/hour for up to 48 hours to maintain Urine Output >0.5 ml/kg/h
        1. Obtain Hematocrit within 2 hours of initial fluid bolus (and consider again at 6 hours)
          1. Hematocrit <44% suggests adequate initial fluid Resuscitation (no need to re-bolus)
          2. Hematocrit >44% is an indication to rebolus LR 2 Liters over 2 hours
        2. Other markers of hydration status and Resuscitation effectiveness
          1. IVC Ultrasound for Volume Status
          2. Blood Urea Nitrogen
    3. Opioid Analgesics
      1. Start with parenteral agents
        1. Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) or Morphine Sulfate
        2. Historically Meperidine (Demerol) was used (but has fallen out of favor due to associated risks)
      2. Transition to oral Opioid Analgesics when tolerating oral fluids
        1. Oral Hydromorphone, Oxycodone or Hydrocodone
    4. Monitoring
      1. Vital Signs and Urine Output recorded every 1-2 hours initially
        1. Transfer patients to Intensive Care for Hypotension, Hypoxemia or Oliguria despite aggressive rehydration
      2. Physical examination every 4 to 8 hours
        1. Observe for Altered Mental Status
        2. Abdominal exam for marked abdominal firmness (Abdominal Compartment Syndrome, third spacing)
      3. Laboratory tests every 6 to 12 hours
        1. Comprehensive metabolic panel
        2. Complete Blood Count
        3. Serum Calcium
        4. Serum Magnesium
        5. Serum Glucose
        6. Blood Urea Nitrogen
      4. Imaging
        1. Consider repeat CT Abdomen for clinical worsening or signs of complications
    5. Electrolyte disturbance
      1. Hypocalemia (related to saponification)
        1. Replace Serum Calcium as needed
    6. Antibiotics
      1. Antibiotics are not indicated in acute Alcoholic Pancreatitis without necrosis
      2. Absolutely indicated only for concurrent infection (infected Pancreatic Pseudocyst, Pancreatic Abscess)
        1. Obtain abscess cultures to guide antibiotic therapy
      3. Controversial whether to use in pancreatic necrosis
        1. Infections occur in one third of necrotizing Pancreatitis cases
        2. AGA as of 2018 recommends NO prophylactic antibiotics regardless of necrosis severity
          1. Prophylactic antibiotics were previously recommended for necrosis of >30% of Pancreas
          2. Crockett (2018) gastroenterology 154:1096-1101 +PMID:29409760 [PubMed]
      4. Antibiotic regimens (if indicated) for infected Pancreatic Pseudocyst or Pancreatic Abscess
        1. Piperacillin-Tazobactam 3.375 g IV every 6 hours
        2. Imipenem/Cilastin (Primaxin) 0.5 to 1 g IV every 6 hours
          1. Villatoro (2010) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (5): CD002941 [PubMed]
        3. Meropenem 1 g IV every 8 hours
        4. Moxifloxacin 400 mg IV every 24 hours
        5. (2018) Sanford Guide
      5. Do not use Probiotics (contraindicated in Acute Pancreatitis)
        1. Besselink (2008) Lancet 371(9613): 651-9 [PubMed]
    7. Surgical debridement indications
      1. Gallstone Pancreatitis
        1. Cholecystectomy is contraindicated in necrotizing Pancreatitis until inflammation improves
        2. Early Cholecystectomy shortens hospital stay without increased surgical complications
          1. Aboulian (2010) Ann Surg 251(4): 615-9 [PubMed]
        3. Consider ERCP with sphincterotomy
          1. Indicated in severe gallstone Pancreatitis (especially if Acute Cholangitis is present or unresolved obstruction)
          2. Sharma (1999) Am J Gastroenterol 94(11): 3211-14 [PubMed]
          3. Ayub (2004) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD003630 [PubMed]
      2. Non-Gallstone related
        1. Surgical indications
          1. Infected pancreatic necrosis
          2. Pancreatic necrosis with clinical deterioration
          3. Severe Pancreatitis and persistent fluid collections (e.g. >2 weeks after onset)
        2. Approach
          1. Minimally invasive techniques are preferred (e.g. percutaneous CT guided aspiration)
  15. Course
    1. Restart clear liquids on day 3-6
    2. Most cases subside in 3-7 days (90%)
  16. Complications
    1. Early Complications
      1. Shock
      2. Gastrointestinal Bleeding (including from gastric Varices)
      3. Common bile duct obstruction
      4. Ileus
      5. Bowel infarction
      6. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
      7. Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis
      8. Splenic venous thrombosis (Splenic infarction)
      9. Pancreatic arterial pseudoaneurysm
      10. Splenic Rupture
      11. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
      12. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis
      13. Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
      14. Pleural Effusion
      15. Hematuria
      16. Acute Renal Failure
    2. Late Complications
      1. Pancreatic Phlegmon
      2. Pancreatic Pseudocyst
      3. Pancreatic necrosis
      4. Pancreatic Abscess
      5. Pancreatic Ascites
      6. Pleural Effusion
      7. Chronic Pancreatitis
  17. Prognosis
    1. See Ranson Criteria
    2. See BALI Score
    3. See BISAP Score
    4. See Revised Atlanta Criteria for Acute Pancreatitis Severity
    5. See CT Severity Index in Pancreatitis (Balthazar Computed Tomography Severity Index)
    6. See Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II Score)
    7. See Modified Glasgow Severity Criteria for Pancreatitis (Imrie Scoring System for Pancreatitis, PANCREAS Score)
    8. Findings that most increase mortality risk
      1. Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis
      2. Multiorgan dysfunction or failure
      3. Necrotizing Pancreatitis (especially with concurrent infection or abscess)
      4. Dervenis (1999) Int J Pancreatol 25(3): 195-210 [PubMed]
  18. References
    1. Mitchell (2003) Lancet 361:1447-55 [PubMed]
    2. Swaroop (2004) JAMA 291:2865-8 [PubMed]
    3. Tenner (2004) Am J Gastroenterol 99:2489-94 [PubMed]
    4. Quinlan (2014) Am Fam Physician 90(9): 632-9 [PubMed]

Acute pancreatitis (C0001339)

Definition (NCI) An acute inflammatory process that leads to necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma. Signs and symptoms include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and shock. Causes include alcohol consumption, presence of gallstones, trauma, and drugs.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD9 577.0
ICD10 K85, K85.9
SnomedCT 39726008, 155834006, 197457003, 266476001, 197461009, 197456007
English PANCREATITIS ACUTE, Acute pancreatitis NOS, Acute pancreatitis unspecified, Pancreatitis, acute, acute pancreatitis (diagnosis), acute pancreatitis, Pancreatitis acute, Acute pancreatitis, unspecified, Acute Pancreatitis, Acute pancreatitis unspecified (disorder), Acute pancreatitis NOS (disorder), Acute pancreatitis, AP - Acute pancreatitis, Acute pancreatitis (disorder), acute; pancreatitis, pancreatitis; acute, Acute pancreatitis (disorder) [Ambiguous]
Italian Pancreatite acuta
Dutch acute pancreatitis, acuut; pancreatitis, pancreatitis; acuut, Acute pancreatitis, pancreatitis acuut
German akute Pankreatitis, Akute Pankreatitis, PANKREATITIS AKUT, Pankreatitis akut
Japanese 急性膵炎, キュウセイスイエン
French PANCREATITE AIGUE, Pancréatite aiguë
Spanish PANCREATITIS AGUDA, inflamación aguda del páncreas, pancreatitis aguda, SAI, pancreatitis aguda, SAI (trastorno), pancreatitis aguda no especificada, pancreatitis aguda no especificada (trastorno), pancreatitis aguda (concepto no activo), pancreatitis aguda (trastorno), pancreatitis aguda, Pancreatitis aguda
Portuguese PANCRETITE AGUDA, Pancreatite aguda
Czech Akutní pankreatitida
Korean 급성 췌장염(이자염), 상세불명의 급성 췌장염
Hungarian Acut hasnyálmirigy-gyulladás, Acut pancreatitis
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Pancreatitis (C0030305)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

The pancreas is a large gland behind the stomach and close to the first part of the small intestine. It secretes digestive juices into the small intestine through a tube called the pancreatic duct. The pancreas also releases the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream.

Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is serious and can lead to complications.

Acute pancreatitis occurs suddenly and usually goes away in a few days with treatment. It is often caused by gallstones. Common symptoms are severe pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment is usually a few days in the hospital for intravenous (IV) fluids, antibiotics, and medicines to relieve pain.

Chronic pancreatitis does not heal or improve. It gets worse over time and leads to permanent damage. The most common cause is heavy alcohol use. Other causes include cystic fibrosis and other inherited disorders, high levels of calcium or fats in the blood, some medicines, and autoimmune conditions. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and oily stools. Treatment may also be a few days in the hospital for intravenous (IV) fluids, medicines to relieve pain, and nutritional support. After that, you may need to start taking enzymes and eat a special diet. It is also important to not smoke or drink alcohol.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Definition (MSHCZE) Akutní p. je náhle vzniklé, prudce a těžce probíhající onemocnění s výraznou bolestí břicha, zvracením, horečkou až vznikem šoku (náhlá příhoda břišní). Někdy vzniká v souvislosti se žlučovými kaménky, může být vyprovokována těžkou dietní chybou, alkoholem nebo některými celkovými onemocněními např. hyperparatyreózou. Těžká forma vede k hemoragické nekróze. Vyžaduje intenzivní léčbu(tlumení bolesti, somatostatin, blokátory žaludeční sekrece, infuze, umělou výživu, antibiotika, léčbu šoku atd.). Lehčí formy se někdy označují jako „podráždění“ (iritace) pankreatu. Chronická p. vznikne někdy po akutní, jindy se rozvíjí samostatně. Má různé projevy bolesti, záchvaty akutní p., poruchy trávení. Komplikací zánětů může být vznik dutiny (cysty či spíše pseudocysty), která může stlačovat některé okolní orgány a být někdy důvodem k operaci. Onemocnění slinivky vyžaduje přísnou tzv. pankreatickou dietu. Jsou zakázány přepalované tuky a tučná jídla vůbec, káva, alkohol apod. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 )
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Inflammation of the pancreas. Chronic pancreatitis may cause diabetes and problems with digestion. Pain is the primary symptom.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by inflammation of the pancreas.
Definition (NCI) Inflammation of the pancreas.
Definition (CSP) acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas due to autodigestion of pancreatic tissue by its own enzymes.
Definition (MSH) INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D010195
ICD10 K85.9
SnomedCT 393591004, 197461009, 75694006
LNC LA15860-2
English Pancreatitides, PANCREATITIS, Pancreatitis, pancreatitis (diagnosis), pancreatitis, Pancreatitis NOS, Pancreatitis [Disease/Finding], pancreas Inflammation, Already mapped above AAHA ID #: 933, Pancreas inflamed, Pancreatitis (disorder), Pancreatitis, NOS
French PANCREATITE, Pancréatite SAI, Pancréatite
Portuguese PANCREATITE, Pancreatite NE, Pancreatite
Spanish PANCREATITIS, Pancreatitis NEOM, inflamación del páncreas, pancreatitis (trastorno), pancreatitis, Pancreatitis
German PANKREATITIS, Pankreatitis NNB, Pankreatitis, Bauchspeicheldrüsenentzündung
Dutch pancreatitis NAO, pancreatitis, Pancreatitis
Italian Pancreatite NAS, Pancreatite
Japanese 膵炎, 膵炎NOS, スイエンNOS, スイエン
Swedish Bukspottkörtelinflammation
Czech pankreatitida, slinivka břišní - zánět, pankreas - zánět, Pankreatitida, Pankreatitida NOS, zánět slinivky břišní
Finnish Haimatulehdus
Polish Zapalenie trzustki
Hungarian Pancreatitis, Pancreatitis k.m.n.
Norwegian Bukspyttkjertelbetennelse, Pankreatitt
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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